Ancient Mythology Lec 02.doc

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLAA06H3
Professor
Vikki Cochioni
Semester
Winter

Description
Ancient Mythology Lec 02 01/16/2013 • Pantheon (All the gods) • Each major god did something to maintain supremacy - Uranus kept his children on Earth - Cronus devoured his children • Zeus escapes being eaten by Cronus with the help of Rhea - Rhea gives Cronus a stone instead of Zeus to eat, while Zeus is given and raised by the nymphs in a mountain cave on goat milk and honey, and guarded by the Curetes (young men) • Delphi considered most sacred in the world because it contains the stone that people considered Zeus and would sacrifice oil - The stone is displayed in Apollo's shrine called omphalos ("navel") • Nympha greek word for bride - nymphs protect springs and are considered frozen brides (virgins) • With the help of his five rescued brothers and sisters, the Cyclopes and the Hecantochires, Zeus fights Cronus and the other titans • Zeus' battle with Tyophoeus, Chtonian (comes from earth) a winged serpent-like creature born from the union of Gaea and Tartarus, that Zeus will throw back into Tratarus • Zeus' battle with the Giants, born from Uranus' blood and Gaia - the "earth-born" imprisoned under the earth - Gigantomachy (Battle with the giants) • Zeus' sexual union to the Oceanid (Daughter of Oceanus - One of Titans) Metis (intelligence) and Athena's birth • Zeus can see future and sees that Metis will give birth to a son that will overthrow him, so he decides to eat Metis to solve his problem - Later Zeus suffers from pain and is in labour, and asks Hephaestus (Hammer - Smith God) to come, and hits Zeus on the head, and Athena is born from Zeus' head fully clothed w/ armour a shield and a spear - As soon as she is born she asks her father for eternal virginity • Men (mortals) created by Zeus or Prometheus, the son of the Titan Iapetus (A titan that took Zeus' side) - The female race according to Hesiod, was creaded seperately and later (Social segregation in Athenian soceity) • Zeus or Prometheus uses water or earth, the word human comes from homos which means soil in latin • Zeus punishes several sons of Iapetus for "excessive pride", Atlas holds the heavens at the western extremity of the word (where the Hesperides are) after the Titanomachy while Prometheus bound in the Caucasus Mountains; his liver eaten by Zeus' eagle - The reasons fro Prometheus' punishment: 1. the feast trick at Mecone (old name for Sicyon), an etiological account for the practise of sacrifice AND 2. the theft of fire and brought it to the earth (The fire in the heavens was the thunderbolt) • Greeks used to burn bones of sacrifised animals and believed the smoke would go up to the sky & the gods • The creation of Pandora - When Zeus finds out about the fire, he gives the humans Pandora in exchange for the stolen fire (told by Hesiod) - Zeus imagines her and Hephaestus builds her up and other gods give her other characteristics as well - She is a gift to humanity but Hermes made her deceitful (Hesiod) • Pandora brings from Zeus a deceiving jar (pithos). Epimetheus, Promethues' and Atlas' brother, marries her. Pandora opens the jar and all the evils come out, except for hope (eplis) which remains with Pandora. - Jars tend to be associated with women (recipients) - Scholars take hope as expectation but hope is commonly considered as something you take for granted and only find it after seeing all the evil - Hope is like a trusting openness towards the future for humanity by Prometheus • Pandora is the first parthenos (virgin/maiden), in the process of becoming a gyne (woman/wife) right after Epimetheus "marries" her. In this sense the myth is an etiological account of marriage as social institution - Gift giving with a dowry, clothing jewelery etc which would stay with the bride • The Parthenon in Athens is the temple of Athena - Hellenistic statue of athena on the base there is a depiction of the myth of Pandora - First maiden connects with Athena, the eternal maiden • The Myth of the Five Races - Hesiod: gold, silver, bronze, heroes, iron(The age that Hesiod lived - (The constant degradation of human race) - Ovid onl
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