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Lecture 2

CLAB06H3 Roman History Week 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies

Roman History Week 2 opéra - jan 19th tickets Katherine Blouin will be mapping questions on midterm and final Early Italy and Rome's First Centuries Dating BC = Before Christ = year before Jesus' birth AD = Anno domini (year of the master) = Jesus' birth BCE = before the common era = BC CE = common era = AD Centuries 1st century BC = 100-1 BC 1st cent. AD = 1-100 AD 2nd century AD= 101-200 AD no year 0 Italy in the Iron Age 900-700 BC The Rise of the Cities 750-450 BC Archaic Rome 700-500 BC Italy in the Iron Age 900-700 BC sources- most archaeological few written; none before 7th century BC 3 best known regions: Eturia- northern Latium - centre/south Campania - very south, where Naples is 4 main peoples: a) Latins b) Etruscans 900-720 bC c) Phoenicians from 800 BC d) Greeks from 800 BC Latinal Culture related language and culture; communal rtes and festivals 9th century BC no more than 100 people - from 800= growth settled on hills some social order; graves arranged by: rite(type of burial(, age & gender miniaturized weapons Etruscan Culture greatly increased settlement (1000 people) Eturia, Southern Apennines, Campania settled on plateaux Tarquinii, Veii (important sites) mysterious origins urban civilization: hydraulics mining/ shafts and tunnels town planning writing revealed highly ritualistic religions Romans borrowed and owed a lot to the Etruscans adopted Phoenician gods & goddesses as well as their alphabet Bronze liver of Piacenza = used for divination and religion; sacrifice animal and look at their entrails; this was used as a "map" of the liver, a translator Romans took their obsessions with divination from this all lavish painted burials (sarcoughigus) were of rich important people laying down on side was how they ate when they had banquets introduced Hellenizism (Greek culture) Phoenicians & Greeks Phoenicians originate from Syria-Lebanon-Israel from 2000 BC kingdom-cities; one city in itself is ruled by a king and surrounding countryside is ruled by the king Trade & navigation wealth of cedar trees; well-suited for boat-making; also exported wood to Egypt 1100 BC Reconnaissaances by sailors on N african + Iberian coasts 800 BC: New settlements From Tyre & Sidon Cyprus Western Sicily etc. Culture Contacts: Phoenicians in Italy 9th-7th century BC Orientalizing phase luxury Phoenicians goods Near Eastern copies Phoenician merchants: Sicilia Sardinia Malta Roma 8th-7th century BC - Tyrians in Rome 8th century BC Phoenician alphabet! Greeks 12th cent. BC Colllapse of the Mycenaens 9th century BC Revival of contacts 8th cent BC Greek settlements 7th-6th cent. BC City-states Magna Graecia = Great Greece (Greece outside of Greece because of all the Greeks living there) Sicilia (Sicily) Greek sources: archaeology, Herodotus, Thucydides 7th cent BC on = commercial links PROFOUND influence on Etruscans and ROMANS: art religion literature politics and institutions Romans owe a lot to the people that were there before them The Rise of the Cities 750-450 BC broad phenomenon Eturia: Tarquinii, Veii, Caere Latium: Rome Campania: Neapolis, Poseidonia Magna Graecia: Syracusa //Eastern Mediterranean city-state = kind of settlement + political, military, social order city = ruled by elite, monumental architecture cemeteries around it rural territory around it walls because they wanted to keep out undead spirits; also to limit space on people; prevent invasions Appearance of an Elite: from 700 BC sources - archaeological (tombs) necropolis (city of the dead) Elite: objects in tomb document the lives of the living; day to day lifestyle remains obscure imagery of wealth and
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