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Lecture 2

EESA06 Lecture 2 Notes.docx

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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Lisa Tutty

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Jan 14, 2013
EESA06 Lecture 2 Notes
All of geoscience has been based on the theory of plate tectonics
More test questions come from this chapter than average***
In 1500s and 1600s, people noticed that the coastlines of various continents
looked like they fit together
Beaumont said that over time, Earth was getting smaller (contracting)
because it was cooling down; this is not true
If the Earth was getting smaller, why would coastlines fit together?
Hilgenberg thought that the Earth was expanding, that the continents were
together than spreading apart; also not true
Geoscientists found that there used to be ice cover in areas that there is not
ice cover now
If you move continents and put them together, there is consistent glaciation;
supported idea that continents used to be closer together than they are
presently
Fossils of Mesoaurus are found on both sides of the Atlantic ocean even
though the organism could not possibly travel that far; maybe there used to
be land bridges?
Inconsistent with the idea that the Earth is shrinking because Mesosaurus
could not travel the Atlantic ocean if it was even bigger than it is now
Mountain belts are located along the edges of continents
Isostasy-> a floating body is going to replace as much volume as its weight
There is oceanic and continental crust
Oceanic crust tends to be much lower and covered with water, while the
continental crust is above sea level and is not covered with water
Continental crust is less dense
Crusts have different densities and are floating in the mantle; if Earth was
contracting, this wouldn’t be a valid theory
Alfred Wegener came up with the idea that continents move around the
Earths surface
Had well travelled friends from the Southern hemisphere and came up with
evidence that other people in the Northern hemisphere did not see
Wegener thought the Atlantic Ocean was quite young and that South America
and Africa were joined together
Wegener thought that continents plow through sea flow, which isn’t realistic
Supercontinent Pangea means ‘all the lands’; when Pangea breaks up, you
form the oceans
The Pacific ocean is much older and deeper than the Atlantic ocean
Technology from war used to find submarines and explosives was used to
enable mapping of oceans floor; send sound waves down to the bottom to
find out the distance
Found a mid-oceanic ridge (MOR) in the Atlantic

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Description
Jan 14, 2013 EESA06 Lecture 2 Notes  All of geoscience has been based on the theory of plate tectonics  More test questions come from this chapter than average***  In 1500s and 1600s, people noticed that the coastlines of various continents looked like they fit together  Beaumont said that over time, Earth was getting smaller (contracting) because it was cooling down; this is not true  If the Earth was getting smaller, why would coastlines fit together?  Hilgenberg thought that the Earth was expanding, that the continents were together than spreading apart; also not true  Geoscientists found that there used to be ice cover in areas that there is not ice cover now  If you move continents and put them together, there is consistent glaciation; supported idea that continents used to be closer together than they are presently  Fossils of Mesoaurus are found on both sides of the Atlantic ocean even though the organism could not possibly travel that far; maybe there used to be land bridges?  Inconsistent with the idea that the Earth is shrinking because Mesosaurus could not travel the Atlantic ocean if it was even bigger than it is now  Mountain belts are located along the edges of continents  Isostasy-> a floating body is going to replace as much volume as its weight  There is oceanic and continental crust  Oceanic crust tends to be much lower and covered with water, while the continental crust is above sea level and is not covered with water  Continental crust is less dense  Crusts have different densities and are floating in the mantle; if Earth was contracting, this wouldn’t be a valid theory  Alfred Wegener came up with the idea that continents move around the Earths surface  Had well travelled friends from the Southern hemisphere and came up with evidence that other people in the Northern hemisphere did not see  Wegener thought the Atlantic Ocean was quite young and that South America and Africa were joined together  Wegener thought that continents plow through sea flow, which isn’t realistic  Supercontinent Pangea means ‘all the lands’; when Pangea breaks up, you form the oceans  The Pacific ocean is much older and deeper than the Atlantic ocean  Technology from war used to find submarines and explosives was used to enable mapping of oceans floor; send sound waves down to the bottom to find out the distance  Found a mid-oceanic ridge (MOR) in the Atlantic Jan 14, 2013  Holmes published a theory that Wegener’s idea was a good start; plates didn’t move by plowing through floor, but rather moved by convection of the mantle (hot water rising, cold water sinking)  Tharp found through mapping that there was a canyon down center of ridge of Atlantic ocean; found large percentage of earthquakes in Ocean fell along the ridge  Earthquakes are not randomly distributed  Underwater topography is called bathymetry; is not a flat floor, also has ridges  Bullard noticed that oceanic ridges had higher heat flow but no one knew why  Die
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