EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Deep Time, W. H. Freeman And Company, Facies

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21 Apr 2012
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Sratigraphy
Early ideas on stratigraphy
How laters get bent and broken
Relative age of rock
Absolute age of rock
The geolicescale: 4.56 billion today
Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on tops of mountains
How did they get there? Strata
"Diluvium"(meaning 'of flood')
Strict biblical interpretation of earth's history (rocks of landscapes result from
Noah's Flood).
More than one flood recognized (new life created each time so each layer
contains different life forms)
Archbiship Ussher (1571-1656)
"Earth formed at 9am on October 26th 4004 B.C"
Based on counting generations in the bible
Georgius Agrcola 1494-1555
"Father of mining geology"
Recognizes that fossils are remains of marine organisms in 1531
Nicolase Steno 1631-86: "Mountains can be raised and lowered, land can be
conveyed from one place to another"
James Hutton 1726-97
1. Recognized "unconformities" within layers of rocks and the igneous
origin of granite
2. Proposed concept of "uniformitarianism" (the present is the key to the
past)
3. Came into conflict with Abram Werner and "diluvialism" and
"catastrophism"
Facies: means "appearance of"
Geologists speak of rock facies
unconformative gaps- a groups of rocks formed at the same time and went
through processes
Hutton's unconformity at siccar point in scotland
1. Deposition of older strata (silurian)
2. Doformation of strata in mountain-building even
3. Erosion to produce surface of unformity
4. Deposition of younger stata (devonian)
5. Uplift, tilting erosion
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"the mind grows giddy gazing so far back into the abyss of time"
John playfair, geologist (1747-1819): the concept of deep time)
The Great unconformity at Marmora, Ontario
-oldest mining town
-Grenville mountains
-peneplain
-formation of mountin, erosion getting rid of them, formation of limestone on top
-over 600million years old: Precambrian: 1Ga
-proterozoic - youngest exoprecambrian
-Proter ("First"), Zoic ("life")
-Paleo ("oldest")
-therfore, paleozoic on proterozoic)
Rodina - rocks seen in Peru
An Angular Unconformity: 500 million missing years
-bottom set of rocks are over 1 billion years, and are sloped down (dipping)
-rocks on top are 500million years and are flat (limestone)
The taconic unconformity in new york state about 440 Ma
The igneous Origin of Granite
From Charles Lyell's geology textbook "Principles of Geology" 1830
Junction of granite and limestone in glen tilt
The big debate of the 19th century:
Catastrophism and Creationism
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