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Lecture 8

EESA07H3 Lecture 8: EESA07H3F Water: Lecture 8 notes
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by OneClass1100220 , Fall 2016
6 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA07H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Lecture
8

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EESA07H3 F: Lecture 8 - Humans and Aquatic Ecosystems: Finding the Right Balance &
Water and Energy. (November 14th, 2016)
Objectives:
Define the major human modifications to aquatic ecosystems.
What is the job os an ecohydrologist?
Define TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load).
Define “Urban Stream Syndrome”.
Define solution techniques for “Urban Stream Syndrome”.
Figure 1: Human Modifications to Aquatic Ecosystems.
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Hydrologic Alteration:
Water withdrawals.
Dams and reservoirs: “aging” of continental runoff.
Water has a high residence time while in a reservoir due to an interruption of the
hydrologic cycle.
Dams
Dams and streamflows: flood control dams, hydropower dams.
Land use change:
It leads to changes in river flow
Wetland drainage:
Leads to altered runoff patterns and the siltation of waterbodies.
Ecosystem destruction leads to a loss of wildlife.
Loss of a natural source for water filtration.
Dramatic examples: Colorado and Yellow river.
The Yellow river is murky
River Flow Regimes:
Range of different flows: magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, rate of change and
predictability.
Maintain river health.
Types of flow:
Low flow
High flow
Flood flow
Timing for different flows
Rate of change of flow
Environmental Flow Requirements:
There must be a range of flows.
Restoring flows can help to restore the entire ecosystem.
Due to human uses of water we can’t completely restore natural flow regime.
How much water does a river need?
Perfect balance: Ecosystem health versus human use.
Physical Alternation:
Balance between sediment sources.
Human alterations to river channels: Straightening, deepening, widening, riverbank
hardening, concrete channel installation etc.
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Description
Human activities that have had negative Consequences for aquatic ecosystems Data Source Impacts Magnitude Action Shiklomanov drying of rivers and 4100 km /yr Water lakes (1999 withdrawals Shiklomanov point and nonpoint effluent and 800 km /yr source pollution, return flow hydrologic discharges alteration WCD (2000) river fragmentation large dams 48,000 hydrologic alteration, sediment apping, etc. extrapolation river fragmentation small dams, 500,000? from US National other barriers Inventory of Dams Chao et al. (2008) increased water 8300 km reservoir residence time capacity sedimentation, evaporation >500,000 km Revenga et al. habitat destruction physica sedimen 2000 impacts to rivers disequilibrium (channelization, etc) 480,000 km2 (53% Dahl (1990 habitat destruction, wetland loss of original wetlands) changes in watershed flow in conterminous US pathways alone -16,000,000 km cropland and changes in and use pasture: FAOSTAT watershed flow changed cropland 34,000,000 km2 2007 data pathways, nonpoint urban: Potere Source pollution pasture 500,000 km and Schneider urban 2007 FAC (2008 depletion, species fishing 10.1 million shifts, pollution, On habitat destruction aquaculture 31.6 million FAO (2008 pollution displacement of On native species, loss of genetic diversitv Human activities that have had negative Consequences for aquatic ecosystems Data Source Impacts Magnitude Action Shiklomanov drying of rivers and 4100 km /yr Water lakes (1999 withdrawals Shiklomanov point and nonpoint effluent and 800 km /yr source pollution, return flow hydrologic discharges alteration WCD (2000) river fragmentation large dams 48,000 hydrologic alteration, sediment apping, etc. extrapolation river fragmentation small dams, 500,000? from US National other barriers Inventory of Dams Chao et al. (2008) increased water 8300 km reservoir residence time capacity sedimentation, evaporation >500,000 km Revenga et al. habitat destruction physica sedimen 2000 impacts to rivers disequilibrium (channelization, etc) 480,000 km2 (53% Dahl (1990 habitat destruction, wetland loss of original wetlands) changes in watershed flow in conterminous US pathways alone -16,000,000 km cropland and changes in and use pasture: FAOSTAT watershed flow changed cropland 34,000,000 km2 2007 data pathways, nonpoint urban: Potere Source pollution pasture 500,000 km and Schneider urban 2007 FAC (2008 depletion, species fishing 10.1 million shifts, pollution, On habitat destruction aquaculture 31.6 million FAO (2008 pollution displacement of On native species, loss of genetic diversitvEESA07H3 F: Lecture 8 - Humans and Aquatic Ecosystems: Finding the Right Balance & Water and Energy. (November 14th, 2016) Objectives: ● Define the major human modifications to aquatic ecosystems. ● What is the job os an ecohydrologist? ● Define TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load). ● Define “Urban Stream Syndrome”. ● Define solution techniques for “Urban Stream Syndrome”. Figure 1: Human Modifications to Aquatic Ecosystems.Hydrologic Alteration: ● Water withdrawals. ● Dams and reservoirs: “aging” of continental runoff. ○ Water has a high residence time while in a reservoir due to an interruption of the hydrologic cycle. ○ Dams ● Dams and streamflows: flood control dams, hydropower dams. ● Land use change: ○ It leads to changes in river flow ● Wetland drainage: ○ Leads to altered runoff patterns and the siltation of waterbodies. ○ Ecosystem destruction leads to a loss of wildlife. ○ Loss of a natural source for water filtration. ● Dramatic examples: Colorado and Yellow river. ○ The Yellow river is murky River Flow Regimes: ● Range of different flows: magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, rate of change and predictability. ● Maintain river health. ● Types of flow: ○ Low flow ○ High flow ○ Flood flow ○ Timing for different flows ○ Rate of change of flow Environmental Flow Requirements: ● There must be a range of flows. ● Restoring flows can help to restore the entire ecosystem. ● Due to human uses of water we can’t completely restore natural flow regime. ● How much water does a river need? ○ Perfect balance: Ecosystem health versus human use. Physical Alternation: ● Balance between sediment sources. ● Human alterations to river channels: Straightening, deepening, widening, riverbank hardening, concrete channel installation etc. ○ This results in changes to flow speed, sandbanks, depths etc., which can lead to a loss of habitat diversity. Chemical Degradation: ● Impacts of deforestation ● Problems with dams ● Urban runoff ● Sewage discharges ● Agricultural pollution ● Industrial point sources ● The problem is how we assess water quality at the global and country level. Biotic Degradation: ● Poor water quality and lack of adequate streamflow. ● Overfishing and nonnative species. ● Dams and water withdrawals lead to biotic homogenization (endangered species) and loss of native diversity. Urban Stream Syndrome: ● Urban Stream Syndrome: characterizes the common effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. ● Total Impervious Area (TIA): Distinguishes what water is going to the street and sewer and that going to green areas and groundwater. ● Effective Impervious Area (EIA): Movement from a water body through surface runoff or storm sewers. ○ Ex. Gutter system discharges to the driveway not to the soil. Impacts to Aquatic Ecosystems: ● Hydrological: ○ Quicker and higher streamflow peak and rapid return to baseflow. ○ Lower baseflow (less groundwater recharge). ● Geomorphic:
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