Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UTSC (30,000)
EESA10H3 (600)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Study Guide


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Lecture
7

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
**not sure about highlights**
Lecture #7: Biological Hazards and Human Health
Wednesday, March 9th/2011
Biological Hazards
Nontransmissible diseases:
oCardiovascular disease
oCancer
oDiabetes
oAsthma
Transmissible Diseases—through infectious agents such as:
oBacteria
oViruses
oProtozoa
oParasites
Growing germ resistance to antibiotics
High reproductive rate allow them to become genetically resistant quickly
Overuse of antibiotics
oUse without reason; bought without prescription in some countries
Antibiotics in food additives to boost livestock
oThus, antibiotics present in meat products
Antibiotic medicine only cures bacterial diseases
Many diseases believed to be eradicated are making a comeback due to growing
resistance to antibiotics
Their high reproduction rate allows them to adapt and be resistant to antibiotics
It also may be because diseases spread much faster nowadays due to fast travel
all over the world
Some insects also get resistant to pesticides
Unknown microbes/bacterial infections in cosmetics?? Cant be treated because
no antibiotics for them especially in the elderly
Bacterial Diseases
Tuberculosis
Tubercles bacillus = TB for short; caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
In 2004, mortality statistics included:
oApproximately 9 million new cases very difficult to treat
o14.6 million chronic active TB cases
o1.6 million deaths, mostly in developing countries
Differences in health care systems
The rate at which new TB cases occur varies widely, even in
neighbouring countries, apparently because of differences in health care
systems
Disease transferred through water droplets spit of ill persons:
oCough
oSneeze
www.notesolution.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

oSpeaking
oKiss
Most commonly attacks the lungs, but there are other forms too
Symptoms are for those with active TB:
oChest pain
oCoughing up blood
oProductive, prolonged cough for more than 3 weeks
oFever
oChills
oNight sweats
oAppetite loss
oWeight loss
oPaleness
oTendency to fatigue very easily
Not every person has the active form of TB
1 in 3 people with inactive TB are detected, only 5% of them develop active TB
Growing Threat
Rates of new cases in which parts of the world related to poor monetary
intervention
Anthrax
= very severe
Bacillus Anthracis (large spore forming bacteria)
ospores produced in unpleasant environment
oproduces toxin
Three major clinical forms:
oCutaneous Anthrax on the skin
oInhalation Anthrax spores inhaled
oGastrointestinal Anthrax spores ingested
All three may to septicaemia and death
No smell or taste; too small to be seen by naked eye
CANNOT BE TRANSMITTED FROM PERSON TO PERSON
Cutaneous Anthrax
The most common naturally occurring ( >95%)
After skin contact with contaminated meat, wool or leather from infected animals
The incubation period ranges from 1-12 days
Begins as a small raising bump, progresses into vesicle and then a painless ulcer
oIn center = black tissue (dead cells)
Symptoms:
oFever
oHeadache
oLymph glands swell best sign of disease
20% of untreated cases results in death
oUntreated meaning no antibiotics used
www.notesolution.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

oUsually antibiotics are prescribed even before symptoms show visibly
Hard to make diagnosis of this disease because we dont know how many spores
we have to come in contact with in order for them to have an effect on us
Inhalation Anthrax
Most lethal form
omost difficult
Caused by inhalation of spores of anthrax
Incubation period is 1-60 days (can be 1-12 or up to 60 days)
oIt depends on the number of spore and differs from individual to individual
Starts as viral respiratory illness
oSore throat
oMild fever
oMuscle aches
May progress to respiratory failure and shock with developing meningitis
Meningitis is a bacterial infection of the membranes covering the brain
and spinal cord (meninges)
75% of cases result in death even with all possible supportive care
Inhalation anthrax used in biochem labs?
Gastrointestinal Anthrax
Caused by consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated meat
Incubational period: 1-7 days
Symptoms:
oNausea
oLoss of appetite
oVomiting
oFever
Followed by:
oAbdominal pain
oVomiting blood
oBloody diarrhea
25-60% of cases result in death
Effect of early treatment is not defined
Bioterrorism related Anthrax
Anthrax is mixed with powder to transport the spores
Be aware of suspicious mail/packages/envelopes
oUsed in terrorist attacks through mail/packages/envelopes
If people get a letter with powder in it:
oKeep object in same room
oDo not remove/empty package/powder
oLeave it on surface where encountered
oLeave the room
oTurn off central air system
oInform officials
www.notesolution.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version