EESA10H3 Lecture Notes - Tuberculosis, World Health Organization

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27 Mar 2012
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HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Lec 7: Biological Hazards
and Human Health
-there are two types of diseases caused by biological hazards:
1. nontransmissible has no particular vector to carry disease )i.e.
cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, asthma)
2. transmissible has agent that carries the disease (i.e. infectious
agent such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa or parasites)
-growing germ resistance to antibiotics because people are taking
antibiotic when they are not supposed and also it enters the food chain
because it is in food
-also, microbes mutate very quickly make them quickly
resistant to antibiotics
-high reproductive rate allow them to become genetically resistant
quickly
-overuse of antibiotics
-antibiotics in food additives to boost livestock
-antibiotic is only used for bacterial not viral diseases
-there are three kinds of biological hazards: bacteria, viruses, protozoa
Bacteria
Tubercolosis
-Medieval times associated TB with vampires as patients coughed up
blood
-caused Bacillus bacteria many forms of TB and Bacillus bacteria
-people in poor housing (sunlight, mould, dampness), poor nutrition and
no rest have decreased immunity more susceptible to TB active TB
with decrease in immunity
-in 2004, mortality statistics included:
-14.6 million chronic active TB cases
-8.9 million new cases
-1.6 million deaths, mostly in developing countries
-differences in health care systems
-not a very common illness in North America
-transmissions – cough, sneeze, speak, kiss, or spit of ill person
transfers from person to person
-most commonly attacks the lungs
-symptoms include chest pain, coughing up blood, and a productive,
prolonged cough for more then three weeks, fever, chills, night sweats,
appetite loss, weight loss, paleness, and often a tendency to fatigue
very easily
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Anthrax
-Bacillus Anthracis
(large, spore forming
bacteria)
-produce toxin can be used as a bioweapon
-certain number of spores need to enter body to get disease but this is
not 100% certain increase in the number of spores entering body
leads to an increased risk of getting anthrax
-three major clinical forms
1) cutaneous – on the skin
-the most common naturally occurring type (>95%)
-after skin contact with contaminated meat, wool or leather from
infected animals
-the incubation period (time between first contact of skin and
appearance of symptoms) ranges from 1 - 12 days
-begins as a small raising bump, progresses into vesicle and then
a painless ulcer
-fever, headache, lymph glands swell
-20 % of untreated cases results in death
2) inhalation
-the most lethal form
-inhalation of spores of anthrax
-incubation period 1-60 days
-starts as viral respiratory illness: sore throat, mild fever, muscle
aches
-may progress to respiratory failure and shock with developing
meningitis
-75 % of cases result in death even with all possible supportive
care
3) gastrointestinal
-consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated meat
properly cooking the meat should kill anthrax
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-incubational period 1-7days
-nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and fever, followed by
abdominal pain, vomiting blood and bloody diarrhea
-25-60 % of cases result in death, effect of early treatment is not
defined
-all three may lead to septricemia and death
-no smell or taste; To small to be seen by naked eye
-cannot be transmitted from person to person
-there is also biological related anthraz
-it is mixed with powder to transport them first sign = smell of
baby powder
-there will also be oily stains on the envelope
-what should people do when they get a letter with powder?
-minimize area of exposure and turn off ventilation
-experts will take nasal and surface swipes to determine if
it’s anthrax
-there is an increase in risk for people who deal with wool and meat and
people who travel to places where anthrax is common
Plague
-caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis
-there are three different forms of plague:
1) Pneumonic plague
-infections of the lungs
-can transfer from person (or animal) to person through the air
-it is a complication of bubonic plague
2) Bubonic plague
-most common form
-when a person is bitten by a flea that has been infected by biting an
infected rodent
-necessary cycle that exists and includes fleas and rodents
-also through a break in a person’s skin
-swollen, tender lymph glands (called buboes), fever, headache, chills
and weakness
-does not spread from person to person
3) Septicemic Plague
-when plague bacteria multiply in the blood
-complications of pneumonic or bubonic plague or it can occur by
itself
-some symptoms as bubonic plague but not buboes
-does not spread from person to person
-can be used as a bioweapon
-treated with antibiotics but there is no vaccine
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