EESA10H3 Lecture Notes - Occupational Hazard, Zoonosis, Biotransformation

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18 Apr 2012

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HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Lec 10: Environmental Hazards to Specific Populations
-four most important at-risk groups: children, women, workers and the elderly
Children Environmental Health
-different exposure patterns between children and adults:
-children have a limited diet
-eat 3-4 times more food in proportion to their body size than adults
-fewer types of food
-large quantities of specific foods
-drink more water relative to their body weight
-children have higher metabolism eat, breathe and drink more per body weight than
adults take in more contamination higher concentration in body
-there are also behaviour unique to children:
-mouthing behaviour (2-6 year olds touch their mouths about 9 times every hour)
-can lead to ingestion of soil (deliberate/compulsive behaviour), paint, small
objects, infectious agents, disinfection byproducts
-participation in certain athletics and/or risky activities
-construction sites
-risky playing activities
-exposure to sun risk from sun increases with age adolescents less like to
put on sunscreen than children
-smoking adolescents
-how and where children spend their time
-spend most of their time indoors
-crawling and playing on the floor (dust, pollutants, infectious agents, radon)
-playing on the grass (pesticides, skin infections)
-zoonosis illnesses that can be transmitted from animals to people
-also short statured
-breathing zone of the adults is 4-6 feet above the floor/ground for children it is
much lower
-physiological differences between children and adults:
-higher metabolic rate
-more active than adults (eat more, drink more, breathe more)
-dermal adsorption
-higher ratio of skin surface area to body weight than adults
-skin is more permeable
-gastrointestinal adsorption
-large surface area of intestines
-prolonged gastric emptying time
-calcium-lead transport mechanism lead and calcium absorption is similar in body
will affect children more i.e. 100 ppm of lead absorbed by adults vs. by children
-lower stomach acidity not always bad
-respiratory adsorption
-breathe twice as much air
-blood-brain barrier depends on age blood brain is the chemical barrier that
allows/prohibits certain chemicals to go into the brain mechanism is not fully
developed in young children children’s brains are more vulnerable
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