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EESA01H3 (141)

lec 8

3 Pages

Environmental Science
Course Code
Carl Mitchell

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EESA01- lecture 8- Food and Genetic Biodiversity Soil - Soil erosion- two factors – wind and water - Agriculture soil is a non point source - Make an estimate of the “erodibility” of the soil - More erosion if there is a slope - Soil with plants is less susceptible to erosion (because roots hold it into place) - Drought x wind: the dust bowl - In the prairies, there was a lot of grasses but when the pioneers moved in they removed the grass to plant vegetables - Drought + high prices (depression) so no one planted anymore - This caused the soil to blow away (topsoil) - Then grasshoppers came and eat everything that was left - Soil conservation and management - Crop rotation: soybeans, corn and wheat (here) because legumes(soybeans) fix nitrogen, the others keep nutrients in and keep the soil healthy - Contour farming: around hills (to avoid erosion) and it retains the water-slows down the erosive process - Intercropping: plant things together that are mutually beneficial to each other - Shelter belts: farms broken up by “fences” of trees- this is to break the wind so that it slows erosion - No-till farming: when, after picking the crop, you don’t till it - More shading, Less insulation, less irrigation - Conserving Soil=Feeding ourselves - Increasing stress on the worlds food to be increases to feed larger population - - Green Revolution - People weren’t getting enough food so that caused the green revolution - Intensive: making more food in the same amount of land - - Industrialized Agriculture - Selective breeding - In 1960 a man made a new kind of wheat that was sustainable against pests - Genetically modified food – different from selective breeding - ½ of the soybeans, ¼ of wheat, 1/6 of corn is genetically modified. - You can take a gene from a different species and put it into another species - Splice the gene and put it into another organism using recombinant DNA - Drought resistance and pest resistance are the major things that people are using GMO - - Very Different from Traditional Agricultural Breeding - Intra-specific: in the same species - Selectiv
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