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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Carl Mitchell

Our environment is more then just our surroundingsy Environment is the sum of our surroundings y It includes all of earths o Biotic Components Living ThingsBiotic ConstituentsAnimals plants soil forests people occupying landscape o Abiotic Components Nonliving thingsAbiotic ConstituentsContinents oceans clouds rivers icecaps In the most inclusive scene our environment includes scientific political ethical economical and social relationshipsinstitutions It is the interactions that characterize environment Most people equated environment with wilderness Environment Canada is to preserve and enhance the quality of Canadas natural environment conserve our renewable resources and protect our water resources Environmental science explores interactions between humans and the physical and biological world y We depend on the environment for air water food shelter and everything else essential for living y Some actions have enriched our lives bringing us longer life spans better health o Some have damaged natural systems that sustain usWaterair pollution soil erosion etc y Environmental Science is the study of how the natural world works how our environment affects us and how we affect our environment o It is important to understand our interactions and our role in the environment Natural resources are vital to our survivalIslands are finite and have limitation in material resourcesRenewable Natural Resources are natural resources that are relenishable over short periods wind wave energy sunlight o Become nonrenewable if we use them at a rate that is faster at which they are renewed or replenishedResource Management is a strategic decision making and planning aimed at balancing the use of a resource with its protection and preservation o Balance the withdrawal from the stock with the rate of renewalregenerationo Stock is the harvestable portion of the resourceStockandflow resources highlight the importance of the balanceNonRenewable Natural Resources are finite supplydepletable as they are formed much more slowly fossil fuels mineral deposits o Once we use them up they are no longer available o Fossil fuelsminerals are mined rather than harvested therore once extraction becomes inefficient to be profitable they move on to new sitesManagement of nonrenewable mineral resources demands conservation reuserecycling o Other resources are truly nonrenewable and nonreplenishable once a species has become extinct it wont return o A key question in managing resources is to look at the resource of interest or to look at the environmental system and how to avoid damaging the system and sustain the availability of the resource in the long termImportant to preserve for the future recently the consumption of natural resources has increased greatly Human population growth has shaped our resource use Four significant periods of societal change appear to have triggered remarkable increases in population size o 1 The paleolithic stone age periodhumans gained control of fire and began to shape and use stones to modify their environment o 2 Neolithic Period agricultural revolution Transition from a nomadic huntergatherer lifestyle to a settled agricultural way of life This change was 1000012000 years ago o 3 Industrial Revolution began in mid1700s entailed a shift from rural life and manufacturing by crafts people to an urban society powered by fossil fuels Life improved but marked the beginning of industrialscale pollutionair quality declined as of reliance on coal Water quantity declinedWorkplace health and safety went under dramatic decline o 4 MedicalTechnological RevolutionAdvances in medicine and sanitation communication technologies shift to modern agricultural practices green revolution allowed people to live longer healthier livesEach major transition introduced technological advancements that made life easier and resources more available effectively increasing the carrying capacity of the environment for humans and allowing the human population to increase dramatically Resource consumption exerts social and environmental impactsPopulation growth affects resource use and availabilityat the root of many environmental problems IP x A x T This IPAT model shows that the impact is a function of not only population but of affluence which stands in for level of consumptionIncrease in number of people P has impacts on increased consumption of natural resourcesand manufactured goods by the worlds people A and the impacts of new technologies T on the environment
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