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EESA06H3 (540)
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Lecture 8

Lecture 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

A very short history of life on earth How are fossils formed? - Shells buried and preserved unaltered (<100 million years) - Cavities filled with silica, calcium carbonate, iron J a process called mineralization o Minerals come from water that flows through the rocks and gets trapped in the cavity Methods: fossilization - Freezing o Not common at all but is the best methods - Drying - Asphalt o tarpits - Amber o E.g. tree saps that preserves and insect in it - Carbonization o When only the carbon is left from the decay - Permineralization o Most common - Peat bogs o E.g peat swamp - Paraffin - Volcanic ash Permineralization - Die in or near water - Soft parts consumed by bacteria - Sedimentation (fine grained = more detail; chemical makeup of rock = colour) o E.g. clay preserves more details that sand o E.g. if a lot of iron, fossil may be red - More sediments pile on = pressure = rock - Mineral rich water = changes to the shell - Uplift - Erosion o When eroded, fossils will be seen - E.g. ammolite o An organic gemstone o Iridescent aragonite with trace elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Ba) o Very colourful - Trace fossils o Preserved tracks, trails, burrows, borings, footprints
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