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Lecture 01 Notes Plant earth.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Lisa Tutty

Lecture 01 Notes Plant earth  Earth is a system  A system is an assemblage of inter-rated elements comprising a unified whole ( eg human body )  A system typically consists of components ( or elements ) which are connected together in order to facilitate the flow of information, matter or energy  The earth system has 4 major interacting parts, with flows of matter and energy between them  The four major interacting parts are Biosphere (Ecosphere) , Atmosphere, Lithosphere, ( Hydrosphere , Cryosphere )  Biosphere is all living or dead organic matter ( not the same as Ecosphere )  Atmosphere is all the air on the earth ( all the gases on the planet )  Lithosphere is solid parts of the earth ( eg Rocks )  Hydrosphere is all the water on planet earth ( both frozen or not )  ,Cryosphere is all the frozen water on planet earth  Lithosphere is also called the solid earth, The upper part of the Earth. which interacts with the other components of the earth system is called Lithosphere  There are two different types of layers, Compositional Layer and Physical Layer  Atmosphere is ( a mixture of gases ) mostly 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen  The Hydrosphere is ( totality of Earth's liquid and solid water )  Cryosphere is the sub-sphere just ( frozen water )  Biosphere also has vegetation on ocean and land ( Land = Vegetation ) ( ocean = Chlorophyll a )  How is the ecosphere different from the biosphere ? ( Ecosphere is the interaction between with all the sphere, however the biosphere is just plants and animals).  In Earth system science the findings of physical and biological sciences are integrated into a global view of our planet  The approach considers the complex interconnecting web physical, chemical and biological process and the medications of these processes and of the earth systems components through time  Technosphere - sum of industrial, technological and agricultural components of human activity  The Technosphere affects the natural surface system of the earth  There are two main sources of energy that the planet takes, which is External energy from solar radiation and Internal energy  External energy ( outside energy from the earth ) which drives the hydrologic cycle and the circulation of atmosphere and ocean ; these, in turn, cause erosion
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