Planet Earth

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Environmental Science
Steve Joordens

Slide 1 Equadore – The Galapagos Islands (finches and Darwin) – Hot spots – Islands are the tip of an iceburg of a submerged plateau – right at the head of the island group – movement of the Nazca plate east – They then erode (dead volcanoes) and have flat tops below sea level – They become Guyotx: a flat topped dead volcano as part of a hot spot trail – About 40 hotspots mostly in oceanic plates – In terms of the islands age two things were found: – -Age of the rocks on the hotspot island compared to those aroundthe ocean florr? They are much younger – The youngest island down the trail you have extinct volcanoes eventually going below sea level, systematic ageing of the rocks as you move away from the hotspots – Orientation of the hotspot = gibes the direction of plate movement – hotspots play a key role in plate tectonic theory – hOTSPOTS ARE COMPOSED OF SMALLER SPOTS – Bathymetric – Amap that shows water dense – 3 million years old islands – Fluid basalt – shield volcano – bumps as a result of magma hitting water (Phreato(water) magmatic erruptions) – You can tell it is a young landscape because there is no vegetation or plants – Image: Eroded remnant of and old volcano (dark rock daggaring upward) actively collapsing – Image: Layers of pyroclastic ash – Image: Cynercone volcano (pointing upward like a cone, ash blows out around the rim) Coarse ash sometimes referred to as Scoria – Beach turtle tracks: Trace Fossil -> the track of an organism – Prickley Pair Cactus with ropey lava being colonized by green things. They are large b/c they have adapted to their environment – Predation: to eat something, what is eating the cactus? It grows its stem for survival. Eaten by giant tortoises – Blue Footed booby? Nostrils are pushed forward right under its eyes so it wont die from water air pressure – 1859 Darwin published the origin of species – Spent five weeks in the Galapogos for a five year voyage – Tortoise habitat destroyed cause they were used as food for long voyages and they were killed off by livestock (goats killing vegetation), feral cats and rats - Rocks and Minerals: – The rock cycle – Magma procude a board class of rocks -> Igneous(born of fire) rocks -> Intrusive igneous rocks that will cool at depth, a lot of them get extruded at the surface -> as a result of weathering we produce sediments that get deposited in layers in the ocean over time getting burried from a soft sediment to something which is cemented, these might form successions that are many km thick, some containing fossil material. But all have unique characteristics – Both igneous and sedimentary rocks can be changed by heat and pressure such that the new rock (metamorphic) is completely different fro mthe parent sedimentary or igneous rock – Lithification: to turn a sediment into rock – Compaction : to squeeze water/air out of something – Cementation – Difference between rocks and minerals – Arock is made out of different minerals (naturally formed, consolidated material composed of grains of one or more minerals) – Amineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids that has a definite chemical composition. They are the building blocks of rocks – Crystalography: study of different mineral types and crystal sizes 4500 different types of minerals known as silicates: minerals based on silicon and oxygen – Quartz – Olivine – dominant mineral in the mantle – Feldspars - crust – Pyrocenes – Mica – Clay minerals such as ka
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