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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 1What is GeologyGeology is derived from the Greek words geologos and means the study of the EarthThe first known geological map was created by ancient Egyptians over 3000 years ago BUT the thscientific discipline of geology as we understand it today came into being only in the late 18 centuryThe Industrial revolution in Northern Europe created a growing demand for energyminerals such as coal limestone iron and waterA geologist findsexplores resources on planet earthOne of the earliest detailed geologic maps was published in England in 1815 by William Smith The father of English geologyIn North America geological mapping began in the midnineteenth centurySir William Logan became the founding director of the Geological Survey of Canada in 1842 th In the late 17 century It was believed that the Earth was only about 6000 years oldNow the age of the Earth has been determined to be at least 45000 million years old th The movement of continents on the Earths surface was suggested early in the 20 century by the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener who wrote continental drift in 1912Wegener recognized that todays continents had previously been clustered together in a large land mass but had subsequently moved apart Pangea all of the landsRock record helps to explain how we are able to find matching rocks in IndianAsia when there is an ocean between them nowSubduction the process where the sea floor slides beneath a continent or island arcWilliam SmithProduced the first comprehensive geological map of England in 1815William LoganCreated the first systematic layout of the geology of Canada Alfred WegenerA German meteorologist who suggested the theory of continental drift J Tuzo WilsonFirst Canadian to complete a degree in geophysicsHe is remembered for his contribution to the development of the plate tectonics theory transform faultshot spotstransform faults The earth is estimated to be at least 455 billion years oldFossil rocks 545 million years agoReptiles 230 million years agoHumans have been here only about the last 3 million years Rapidly to a geologist means a few million yearsrecent means something could have happened within the past several years Geoscientists work in the field to find prospective money making mineralsdiamonds analyze the chemistry of rockmineralsMineralogists study mineralsPetrologists study the makeup of rockshow they formSeismologists study how to measuremitigate earthquake activityPaleontologist study the remains of dinosaursHydrogeologists study the water which transmits sediments in order to protect them
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