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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 – Planet Earth.docx

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Lecture 9 – Planet Earth Slide 1 - obduction: the process by which continents collide [no subduction] - pangea II > new supercontinent - techtonic changes can makes changes over a long timescale - climate changes in eastern Africa that promoted human development - The future of Planet Earth Slide 2 - reverse the order: Today > 60 mya > 135 mya > pangea 2 - locus of the next supercontinent > SE Asian [Japan] - fig 2.9 txtbk - subduction zone right off Indonesia [india being pushed up] o the effects of india being driven up as a wedge effects a very large area o Afghanistan, Pakistan and SE Asia are escaping as a result o earthquake in japan for example is a result of the wedge caused by India o the collision start 20mya - the mediterarian is a remnant ocean that is closing > caused by Africa moving - the Alpes are a product of Africa colliding with Europe - melt large area of nice > produce granite > rhyolite o local melting [do not see volcanoes in obduction zones] - ophiolite > green rocks that results from the metaphorism of basalt o in Canada called > green belt rocks [found in Canadian shield] Slide 9 - initial wedge caused by obduction - earthquakes in China are a result of India moving North - Orogeny > the process that build mountions - Orogen > the rocks that are apart of the process Slide 11 - closure of the Tethys Ocean > as Pangea breaks up - gondwana - india, Africa moved towards Laurasia - India separated from Antartica due to a midocean rift > this the process Pangea breaking up Slide 12 - figures o initial subduction > it is subducting the ocean floor o there thrusting on a huge scale > obduction > considerable shortening of the crust o asthenosphere > softer layer - when you have high mountain you always have fallen basans infront of them o where we find coal and oil from o important > because we have fallen sea waves o fallen basan in Canada > West interior sedimentary basan - Mount Everest > just below the summit there are sedimentary rocks and limestones > 9km above sea level Slide 15 - pilo-plieoscene > thermal maximum - modern oceans start 30 mya > when ice started to form over the poles - freeze saline water > salt gets driven put during freezing - Brine > enriched more saline water cause freezing ice water o higher density > sinks > goes to the equator as bottom water o
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