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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Lecture 2- EESA06 2 types of crust o Oceanic crust- relatively high density, so it wants to sink back down into the plastic rocks underneath, so it creates these large ocean basins o Continental crust Moho- the base of the crust Drilling down is about 12 km, as you go down with depth, it gets hotter o The deepest mine in the world is 4 km down in South Africa The deeper interior of the planet is the result of geophysics Earthquakes generate energy o There is 2 blocks of crust that move relative to each other, and the surface along which the blocks have moved is call a fault plane, like a very long crack, the surface between the moving blocks o When the blocks move, it creates energy and we feel it as earthquake o The focus is where the energy is released, it is always on the ground Might be several hundred km on the ground, might be 5 km o The epicentre, the point directly above the focus o Fault scarp: o Bluff is the steep slope that results when we move one block against another one Seismic risk assessment: trying to identify what the danger is of the community result of an earthquake Rivers easier to erode along faults Try to identify the morphologic Seismic waves is energy produced by abrupt movements along the faults Not all faults produce earthquakes Most faults ar
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