Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

Lecture 2: Oceans Worlds Ocean 71% of earth surface is ocean o 4:1 in southern hemisphere o 1.5:1 in northern hemisphere Atlantic Ocean o Separate Americas from Europeans and African continents o Covers 21% of earths surface o Average depth of 10 800 feet o Several shallow sea including Caribbean, Mediterranean, Gulf of Mexico o Major rivers including Amazon, Congo, Mississippi, St. Lawrence drain in Atlantic Pacific Ocean o Goes from East to West and North to South o Attaches all continents o Worlds largest ocean o Covers 30% of earth surface (64 million square miles) o Deepest ocean with average depth of 14 000 feet o Has 25 000 islands due to volcano eruptions o Rivers including Colorado, Columbia, Rio Grande de Santigo, Mekong, Yukon drain into Pacific India Ocean o Bordered on west, north, east by Africa, Asia and Australia, south merges with Southern Ocean o Covers 14% of earths surface o Worlds warmest ocean o Average depth of 12 800 feet o Rivers including Ganges, Indus, Irrawaddy, Zambezi Southern Ocean o Encircles Antarctica o Second smallest, 4% of earths surface o Different depths at different places, average depth of 12 800 feet o Several seas part of Southern Ocean including Amundsen Sea, Ross Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell o Partially covered with sea ice, with amount of ice fluctuating by season o In winter sees more sea ice Arctic o Smallest and shallowest of all 5 oceans o Covers 3% of earths surface o Average depth of 3450 feet o Center of Arctic Ocean covered by layer of sea ice up to 10 feet thick o In winter, mostly covered with sea ice, which turns half in size in summer o Many minerals and resources buried under the ice Sea vs. Ocean Ocean is one big body of salt water with no boundaries and limitless volume Seas refers to large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean, commonly used as synonym for ocean Term seas used to differentiate between parts of the ocean Sea is partially surrounded by land Ocean is bigger Inland sea: 3 sides surrounded by land, small salinity, 1 side connected to ocean www.notesolution.com
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