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EESA09H3 (185)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

EESA09H WINDLecture 8 Notes Outline of this lecturePart I Measuring WindInstrumentationAnemometersMeasuresWind ChillRecording WindAnemographWind roseSound of windPart II Wind Strength ScalesBeaufort FujitaSaffirSimpsonPart III Special Focus Mach Speeds and Sonic Booms Part 1 Measuring Wind 11 Instrumentation 111 Anemometers Anemometers are instruments used to measure wind speed Weather vanes or wind vanes are used to measure wind direction There are at least seven types of anemometers These anemometers are primarily used to measure wind at or near the surface of the earth Higher level winds are measured using radiosonde weather balloons or deduced from pressure distribution Upper level winds are geostrophic and thus the knowledge or the pressure gradient enables us to calculate the wind speed and direction a Deflection The first anemometer was invented by Leon Battista Alberti in Italy in 1450 It was a deflection anemometer He linked wind speed to the deflection of a horizontal plate He hooked the plate to a spring and measured the compression of the spring Leonardo da Vinci created a similar anemometer a few decades later A century later Robert Hooke of England created the widely used Hooke anemometer b Pressure In 1774 James Lind developed a tube anemometer It was a U tube in which wind blows into and causes liquid to move up and down in a tube It measures the force of the wind relative to the force of gravity the higher the wind speed the greater amount of displaced liquid It works on the same principle hydrostatic balance
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