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Lecture

Wind POWER.docx

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA09H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin
Semester
Summer

Description
Wind POWER - who was Icarus? Mythical flight who flew near to the sun - What did Leonardo Da Vinci do in the 15 century ? He created designs of hang gliders , helicopters and other flying machines but didn’t make them since he didn’t have the engineering skills to do so - What did George Cayley do? First piloted glider in 1853 - Otto Lilienthal, created 2000 glider flights from his own designs but died in a glider crash in 1886 in a glider mishap - Who created the first manned flight? THE WRIGHT BROTHERS, in Dec 17 1903 DYNAMICS OF FLYING - The Bernouilli Principle which involves LIFT - Fluids that are moving faster tend to have LOWER PRESSURE. - Wings are shaped in a special way, so that the air moves FASTER Over the top of the wing than underneath. Hence at the top of the wing there tends to be LOWER PRESSURE and the bottom tends to have HIGHER PRESSURE, which creates a PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE pushing upwards - The wing experiences LIFT and the flight is enabled - Faster moving air  LOWER PRESSURE - This provides lift, which enables a plane to rise or a sailboat to move - Moving from HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE By 2000, 8000 commercial flights were taking place , and 1,000,000 people are in the air SAILING Sailing has a long history, particularly in the Middle East and China. Sailing was used as an efficient means of transportation, carrying people and goods from port to port and bringing prosperity to coastal regions. - It became an important part of transportation (trade , military) in the Mediterranean - What was a negative thing about square sailing? • Square sail limited maneuverability – because you could only sail downwind and not against it - What was a benefit of lateen sailing? It was a triangular sail on a boom and provided more options like sailing against the wind , etc. SAILING HISTORY • Mediterranean / Middle East • Nile • Euphrates delta • China • Junks developed during Han dynasty (220 BC) - Junk rig used by Chinese ships had the capability of sailing into the wind as 220 BC EXPLORATION - 1000 AD Newfoundland was discovered by Norse sailors - – Christopher Columbus 1492 - What kind of travel did Christopher Columbus engage in? carrack travel via the Trade Winds and Westerlies - – 1300-1400 (Ming) Chinese • • Navy, commercial exploration • • 125 m vessels, nine masts • • 3500 ships - – 13thcentury onward – ships - capable of travelling anywhere on earth. • They used ships known as knars or cogs to cross the Atlantic to North America the “square rigged” sails were very sensitive to wind direction CARAVEL - Used in the 14 -17 centuries - Used for travelling around the world - Three masts that are 25 m in length - What type of sails were used ? Lateen or Square rigged - Nina and PInta were caravel ships CLIPPER - Was first developed by the Americans - HAD MANY SAILS to compete with new technology (steamers) - Perfected by England- CHINA CLIPPER - The china clipper was used to bring tea back from china in record time (less than 100 days) - Since 1850 sailing has been recreational SAILING DYNAMICS - Works the SAME as flying - But the difference is that there is a 90 degree change in orientation the “lift” component is horizontal and not vertical - LIFT IS HORIZONTAL , and bernoulli’s principle still applies - There is a moveable boom , typical of a lateen sail and this enables flexibility in sailing in any direction - MOVEABLE BOOM - Combination of SAIL ORIENTATION AND KEEL BOARD dictates boat direction WINDMILL HISTORY 2000 B.C. China – not well documented • 200 B.C. • China – pumping water • Middle East – grinding grain • Wind energy directly converted to end use • Poorly documented • 644 A.D. • Persia – first historical reference • 950 A.D. • Sketches from Seistan, Persia • Vertical axis windmills 14– 18th Century A.D. – Expanding and widespread use – 90,000 in Britain (one for every field) – Dutch use in agriculture, industry, land drainage – “oil” of its time – a wind economy • 19 century, replaced by coal fired steam engine Two basic styles – Vertical axis – Horizontal axis • Developed independently • WHAT STYLE for the windmill is currently dominating? Horizontal – More efficient design • How are windmills used in modern times? Windmills are used to generate electricity through wind turbines. – Electricity generation • Wind turbines! WIND TURBINE HISTORY - Wind turbines evolved from wind mills in the late 19 century • To generate electricity - Who created the first wind turbine? Charles BRUSH of Cleveland created the first wind turbine (1888) • It had 144 rotating blades and it was 18 metres in length • How much energy did it generate ? 12 kW - Poul la Cour - What did Poul La Cour do? He reduced the blades to 4 - What happened by reducing the blades? Enabled
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