Lecture 2 Air Pollution.docx

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Environmental Science
Silvija Stefanovic

Lecture 2 EESA10 1/18/2012 3:57:00 PM Lecture 2: Air pollution Aisec Toronto Case Study 1: London Smog Landmark in air pollution In creating loss and actions for air pollution The tremendous number of gases of different kinds started during the industrial revolution Since the industrial revolution, the amount of gases and level of contamination was very high One of the biggest events was London Smog which happened in 1953  This event lasted no longer than 5-6 days There was a lot of fog and moist air during this smog The industry relied on the burning of coal which was called “soft coal”  This soft coal contained high quantities of sulfur which released sulfur dioxide  The smog was very thick during this time that it darkened the sky during the day People got choked due to the large amounts of sulfur in the air During this period of 4 days, about 4000 people died due adverse affect of sulfur gases The two components in smog (sulfur and smog) was the most responsible London fog was the landmark for smog The British government implemented „British clean air act‟ and this was one of the first acts passed during that era Coal was replaced with other forms of fossil fuels Case Study 2: Indonesian Fires Very common practice in this tropical forests was „slash and burn‟  This means initiative fire to burn the trees and clear land In 1997, the monsoon season came later than expected and it was a very dry year People lost control of the fire as the area burnt was tremendous One of the aircrafts crashed just because of this smog in the air Monsoons arrived and instigated the fire but similar events took place in 1998 Airborne Hazards Outdoor Air Pollution  The natural sources (volcanoes which release gases, vegetation)  Human sources are divided into stationary (industries) and mobile (transportation)  The common gases are carbon dioxide etc  This forms different kinds of gases as well and particulates as well  In Asthma, condition is worsened due to various air pollutants in outdoor air  The industrialized countries have a high amount of Asthma patients Lecture 2 EESA103  Chronic bronchitis is promoted by sulfur dioxide and smoking  Shortness of breath, or Pulmonary emphysema is promoted by natural gases  Other illnesses include lung cancer, heart disease (direct cause in air pollution and worsens existing patient cases), toxic poisoning (carbon dioxide), eye irritation (watery eyes and prolonged irritation), birth defects (air pollution) Seven pollutants in Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate matter is particulates suspended into the air which includes dust, smoke and liquids as well  Smaller microbes particulates are more dangerous i.e. 2.5 because they can reach further in our body  Internal combustion is within the house (?)  Different toxicity of each of these components in particulate matter  Some are released from the ground but some are formed in the air (sulfur gases or metals in atmosphere)  Nitric acid is developed when several gases are dissolved in water and this can damage lens, buildings, plants, water etc (ACID RAIN) Carbon Monoxide  CO, which is colorless and odorless  The person exposed to lower levels of carbon monoxide may confuse the gas with flu or food poisoning  High levels of carbon monoxide is poisonous and the person will lose coordination and the person will not be able to leave the car or leave the room o A person will struggle and it will be too late if exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide  People will heart and respiratory illnesses are at high risks  It in an outdoor air pollutant and is released by vehicles, industry but dramatic events in newspapers usually show toxic poisoning indoor Nitrogen Oxide and Ozone  These two contribute to photo chemical smog  This is usually internal combustion  Nitrogen is not soluble and will not dissolve in the mouth and therefore, travel to lungs and damage lungs  Nitrogen also forms ground level ozone  Air pollution is not a localized problem but it is a Global problem which can travel long distances  Many big Chinese and Indian cities have been extremely polluted o 12% of the soft coal resources in the world are in China
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