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EESA10H3 (501)
Lecture 9


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Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Lecture 9 ToxicologyToxicologyDefinition StudyScience of poisons the science which studies toxic substances or poisons that are substances which cause alteration or perturbation in the function of an organisms leading to harmful effects Truhaut1974Some times people are working with toxic substances without being aware of it Toxicology assessing chemical hazards 1 How harmful a substance is toxicity depends on Chemical properties of the substance how much of the substance would be found in the water soil air Volatile substances are found in airChemical partition in the environment depends on Electro negativity Polarity Oxidation state Molecular weight Dissociation cations and anions distribution is different Solubility Water soluble toxins inorganic substances like heavy metals are water soluble Fat soluble toxins like organic toxicants like DDTToxicology assessing chemical hazards 2 Persistence of chemicalbreak down environment Bioaccumulation accumulation in some organ Nothing to do with food chain Biomagnification increased concentration of chemical in organism food chainChemical interaction between 2 chemicals How much they can be toxic Antagonistic In presence of carcinogen with Vitamin AE that can significantly reduce their toxic effects Synergistic If 2 chemicals are found together it can cause even more harm Eg Asbestossmoking for lung cancerMultiple chemicalsfood additives pesticides air pollution Receptor Dose Response
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