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EESA10H3Y Lecture 2.docx

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Environmental Science
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EESA10H3Y Lecture 2 16 May, 2011 Case Study 1: London Smog, 1952 - The smog was a result of coal burning - People started heating their home extensively and the source of energy was coal - Some peopleexperienced was a burning sensation in throat, water eyes - 4000 people died from this, (poisoned, sick) - The Relationship Between Smoke And Sulfur Dioxide Pollution And DeathsDuring The Great London Smog, December 1952, Source: Wilkins, 1954 - Figureshowstheaveragesmokeandsulphurdioxidelevelsfor12Londonsitesandtherelationshipwithdea thsrecordedduringthesmogperiodinDecemer1952.Thepeakinthenumberofdeathscoincidedwiththep eakinbothsmokeandsulphurdioxidepollutionlevels. - Case Study 2: Indonesian Fires, 1997 - Always happen before the rain - Smoke from fires set clear land for agriculture in indonisia at one time in 1997 blankted an area larger than the contential united states. - Fire damage classification of the 1997-1998 fires in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, based on ERS-SAR images. Airborne Hazards - Outdoor pollution - Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution The effects depend on the dose or concentration Primary effects: Toxic poisoning Cancer Birth defects Eye irritation Irritation of the respiratory system Increased susceptibility to heart disease Aggravation of chronic diseases such as asthma and emphysema Seven Common Outdoor Air Pollutants Primary air pollutants Particulate matter Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Sulphur oxides VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) Lead Secondary air pollutant Ground level Ozone Particulate matter (PM 10and PM 2.5) Particles found in the air (dust, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets) Big and small Vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, stone crashing, burning Some formed in the air Serious health effects Carbon Monoxide Odourless, colourless gas - Incomplete burning of carbon containing fuels Heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, water heaters, automobile exhaust, tobacco smoke Health effects of Carbon monoxide Interferes with the delivery of oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body Worsen cardiovascular conditions Fatigue Headache Weakness Confusion Disorientation, loss of coordination Nausea, Dizziness, Death Prevention Never leave a car engine running in a shed or garage or in any enclosed space Proper selection, installation, and maintenance of appliances Correct use Good ventilation Use CO detectors Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Form in any type of combustion process Involve in formation of ground level ozone Form nitrate particles, acid aerosols Contribute in formation of acid rain Transported over long distances Indoor air pollution Contains 2-5 times higher concentration of hazardous pollutants than outdoor air Buildings more airtight to conserve energy, inadequate ventilation People spend about 90% of their time indoors Children, pregnant women, elderly, people with chronic illnesses Sources of pollutants Building materials and furnishing Asbestos insulation Wet or damp carpet Furniture made of certain pressed wood products Cleaning products and air fresheners Personal care and hobbies Sources of pollutants Pesticides Cooking Bathing Heating (combustion of oil, coal, wood) Radon Smoking Outdoor pollution Sick Buildings Syndrome Health
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