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Environmental Science
Kathleen Smith

EESC04H3 – Lecture 1 Goals of Biogeography Laws and concepts that explains the bigogeographic processes and account for biotic distributions Provide baseline information (ecologist) talk more about landscape level and infer what’s impt. In determining those laws and concepts – spatial and temporal distribution of organisms can we make this prediction to conserve and manage Earth’s biotic resources and heritage. Investigation of symbioses – plant and insects Poison IVY !!! Pants – just avoid plants with leaves in groups of 3 for now. What is biogeography? Study of biological patterns and processes past present future occurring over broad geographic and temporal scales Biogeography - study og geographical distribution of organisms their habitats ecological biogeographic Habitat how organisms survive and change their habitats Local change – continental drifts and biological change What is biodiversity? Variety of life forms together with abundance and distribution in time and space. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of health of biological systems. Biodiversity – measured in variety of ways (species richness,eveness, abundance) Modulation – reduction in biodiversity Assumption - process interconnected – we believe that biodiversity is good inherently there is a general understanding that we are changing it homogenizing it. Little more stable if diverse. Presume biodiversity is healthy. But there is a limit to that. Spatial distribution in diversity – must be appropriate to. Making changes but don’t know the impacts of its changes. Species richness – how many diff.species in a specific area (pool) Eveness – spread out cluster of one species or little spread out species What organisms are found where? Darwins – theory of selection Wallace – Bolete – part of mushroom that reproduce Fungi – cacti Dark diversity – missing Unknown diversity Mariana trench Pacific ocean south of Japan Black smokers Deepest pt. no light high pressure acidic toxic hot yet there is organisms in here Extremeophiles – abyssal benthic communities in hyrothermal vents Exploration is going on – looking for life in space Biodiversity How many living things are there Bet.14-17million but 10x these numbers Entomologist Spend a lot identifying ants – Wilson Insects more 30 million insects and viruses bacteria Higher plants – flowering plants Botanist - plants have biomass – few of insects relative to plants Plants are drivers in earth’s ecosystem Majority of spp.are insects and flowering plants due to symbioses bet. These two groups Co-evolution Symbiosis bet those two… Insects eat plants Plants depend on insects for pollination Insects promote plant from propagating Is classification impt? Biological species Pop. Whose members are able to interbreed freely under natural conditions Each biological species is a closed gene pool(shared genes) evolution of traits that are diagnostic in defining specie
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