GASB58- Class 6.docx

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22 Apr 2012
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GASB58 Class 6 February 16, 2012
WEEK 6: THE LATE QING: 100 DAYS REFORM, “BOXER UPRISING AND THE 1911 REVOLUTION
THE HUNDRED DAYS REFORM
- A response to the defeat in the Sino-Japanese war in 1895
- Kang Youwei 康有为 (1858-1927), Liang Qichao 梁启超(1873-1929): both natives of Guangdong, and Juren
(Holders of Provincial-Level Degrees); Later in 1895, Kang became a Jinshi (presented scholar)
- angry with the terms of the treaty with Japanese
- wanted the government to refuse to give the concessions to Japan
- Qing government too weak. Guangxu (Emperor) didn’t have as much influence over the government as
Empress Dowager Cixi
- Kang Youwei 康有为
- Petition in 1895, as candidate for exams at Beijing (Jinshi)
- Reinterpreted Confucius as a Reformer (Kongzi Kaizhi Kao)
- Advocated constitutional monarchy after the Japanese model
- Received by Emperor on June 16, 1898; Appointed to lead the reform
- Liang Qichao 梁启超
- Kang’s student, co-founded Qiangxue Hui (Society for the Study of National Strength);
- One of the leaders of the Reform
- Tan Sitong (1865-1898) 谭嗣同
- Famous for “Renxue” (Study for Benevolence): denouncing Confucianism; calling for adoption of Western
legal and political institutions.
- Petitioning to the Qing court in June 1895, after the Sino- Japanese war
- Guangxu’s Reform
- Issued a large number of imperial edicts within 103 days
- Education: changed the contents of the Civil Service Exams; to establish Western School system, send
students abroad to learn from the West
- Encourage commerce, industries, and agriculture
- Strengthen the military: training, weapons, and discipline
- Encourage free press, free speech, free assembly
- Simplified imperial bureaucracy and abolished some Manchu privileges
- Aborted Reform Movement
- Yuan Shikai’s 袁世凯 betrayal (was originally ally to Guangxu)
- Sept. 19, 1898, Cixi had Guangxu under palace arrest
- Kang Youwei 康有为 fled to HK; Liang Qichao fled to Japan
- Tan Sitong 谭嗣同 and 5 others executed (Six Gentlemen of the Hundred Days’ Reforms
EMPIRES “SCRAMBLE FOR CONCESSIONS IN CHINA IN THE LATE 1890S
- Germany
- 1898, Occupied the port City of Qingdao (Shandong Province)
- Mining and railway rights in the countryside nearby
- Britain
- Took Weihaiwei 威海卫 in northern Shandong for 25 years
- Demanded a 99 year lease on northern Kowloon Peninsular (HK) in 1898
- China ceded the tip of Kowloon in 1860; Return of HK in 1997
- Rights to build 2800 miles of railway; control along the Yangzi river
- Russia
- Obtained a 25 year lease of Port Arthur (Lushun and Dalian, in Manchuria
- Railroad rights from Dalian to Harbin; into Manchuria after the Sino-Japanese War
- France
- Got a 99 years lease of the Guangzhou Bay
- Penetrate into Southern borders, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong
- Right to build railways from Tongkin (Vietnam) to Kunming of S. China
- Japan
- Colonized Taiwan since 1895, expansion in Korea, Manchuria, Central China
- The US
- Was busy conquering the Philippines
- “Open Door” Policy—foreign “spheres of influence” in China
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