GASB58- Class 10.docx

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GASB58 Class 10 March 22, 2012
WEEK 10: THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION AND THE REFORM ERA, 1966-94
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION
Prelude to the Cultural Revolution, 1958-65
- Disputes over the Great Leap Forward, 1958-60
- Changes to the Party Leadership
- President of the PRC: Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇(1898-1969) [1959-68]
- General Secretary of the CCP: Deng Xiaoping 邓小平 (1904-97) [1956-66]
- Premier: Zhou En’Lai 周恩来; Vice Premier: Chen Yun 陈云
- Mao Zedong’s Ideology for Continued Revolution
- His wife: Jiang Qing
- Minister of Defense: Lin Biao 林彪
1. Permanent Revolution
- 1963: Socialist Education Movement
- Revolutionary Models: AgricultureDazhai 大宅 Village (1964), PLALei Feng 雷锋 (model soldier,
1962)
2. Class Struggle in the Cultural Realm
- “Never Forget the Class Struggle”
- Historian 吴晗 Wu Han’s Opera “Hai Rui Dismissed from Office 海瑞罢官
The Cultural Revolution, 1966-76
- The Active/First Stage: May 1966 to April 1969
- Continued criticism of Wu Han’s “Hai Rui Dismissed From Office 海瑞罢官
- May 1966: The Cultural Revolution Group, led by Chen Boda 陈伯达, Jiang Qing 江青, Kang Sheng 康生
- May 19-August 1966
- Radicals at universities challenged Party Leaders (Nie Yuanzi 聂元梓, philosopher teacher at Beijing
University; published a Poster)
- June 1: Mao Zedong authorized broadcasting of the poster
- Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 tried to assert Party authority over the radicals
- August 1: Mao endorsed the use of the term “Red Guard”
- August 5: Mao’s own Poster: “Bombard the Headquarters”
- “Sixteen Points”, August 8, 1966—Mission of the Cultural Revolution
- To struggle against and overthrow those persons in authority who are taking the capitalist road
- To criticize and repudiate the reactionary bourgeois academic “authorities” and the ideology of the
bourgeoisie
- To transform education, literature, and art, and all other parts of the superstructure that are inconsistent
with the socialist economic base.
- The Red Guards
- The Mao Cult
- Four Greats: Great Teacher/Leader/Commander/Helsman
- Three Loyalties: To Mao, Mao’s Thought, and Mao’s Revolutionary Line
- Red Guards Organization Disbanded (Spring 1968)
- Oct. 1968, Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 expelled (died Nov. 1969)
- April 1969: Ninth Party Congress, Lin Biao as Mao’s Successor
The Cultural Revolution, 2nd Stage 1969-76
- Reeducation of Urban Youths, “Up to the Mountains and Down to the Villages”, 1967-76
- Power Struggle between Lin Biao 林彪 and Mao Zedong
- Lin’s 林彪 expanded political influence through the PLA
- April 1969, Lin named successor to Mao
- Conflicts between Mao and Lin
- Death of Lin Biao 林彪 in Sept. 1971
- Conspiracy for assassination of Mao
- Crash in Mongolia
- Normalization of Relations with the US 1971-72
- Henry Kissinger visited in 1971
- President Nixon visited in 1972
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