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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.doc

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Michelle Buckley

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Week 2 ← Cities only a few thousand years old ← Early urban settlements • Middle east “cradle of civilization” • Generally quite small cities, initially tens of thousands of people and later on hundreds of thousands (small by todays standards but pretty big at the time) ← ← Defining urbanization ← How do we understand the growth of cities ← Urbanization in this definition is about people, increasing density or sprawl ← ← Other trends of growth and decline ← Suburbanization and exurbanisation, often used interchangeably ← Counterurbanization – there are cities that are not growing anymore, they are experiencing and managing a decline in growth Reurbanization – the inside of the city starts to grow again and people start to move back to the core of the city Drivers of population changes in cities Birth rate is rising while death rates fall/are slower • Canadian population is on the whole declining, more people are coming from other places into cities • Example of this is Saudi Arabia and other places in the middle east, a lot of the population is under 25, huge housing crisis because of this ← ← Transnational migration ← Rural to urban migration (intra national) ← Urban to urban (intra national); people who move from city to city ← ← Post war American city: ← Urban geographers became fascinated by urban structure and why certain structures where placed in certain places ← Derived models for cities ← ← Quantitative methods of the 1950s ← Why did cities vary in size ← Where different groups lived within cities ← ← Tried to map activities within cities using census data and other information • Wanted to come up with a model of how contemporary cities grew ← ← The structure and morphology ← ← Chicago was the hotbed for models of urban growth ← Burgess’ concentric circle model • Wondered how cities grew and explored Chicago and the activities/locations going on • CBD- central business district, a lot of banks, a lot of commerce occurs o Surrounded by a semi industrial factory zone • Residential areas divided by class, poorest nearest to the factories, middle class a bit further, and wealthiest far away because they can afford to commute ← ← Modeling the city ← Model-oriented- descriptive ← ← Quantitative- mathematically measuring the city, count how many businesses in the CBD, can count how many people live in a certain area, based on feature geographies ← ← Nomothetic knowledge- assumes that we can make up rules for the world, can take information about Chicago and apply it to the world ← Can take something specific and derive rules/claims based on that specific thing ← ← Critiques ← 1. doesn’t apply to Dhaka and other cities in Bangladesh for example and other parts of the world. It suits the united states better ← 2. ← 3. doesn’t look into race and gender, what they include is as important as what they left out ← 4. focuses on economy, neglects other factors, ethnic enclaves such as Chinatown which could be important to a city such as Toronto. Critiques (II): Centrality The idea that the heart of the city has to have a downtown/city centre • is Chicago a good model of what cities today look like/should look like ←
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