Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Geography (700)
GGRA02H3 (100)
Lecture 6

lecture 6


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA02H3
Professor
Michael Bunce
Lecture
6

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-
dynamic
geographies of manufacturing: the endless search for
optimal
locations
- companies try to minimize labour/environmental costs
- other costs can drive companies away e.g. taxes, low levels of regulation
- retail end of the commodity chain: transformation of urban spaces
- Wal-mart -- looking for minimal costs to maximize their profits, provides a vast
range of affordable goods to its customers
- employees and labourers are low-paid and economy exploits surface value of
labour
- converting productive land use
Æ
consumptive land use
- directly involved with localities
Æ
exploited, but must be exploited - localities will not have ability to survive
- Haiti
Æ
labourers still go to work, government says higher wages will drive
company away, company says it is a fair wage
- social exploitation or new opportunities for employment, income and development?
If a plant closes in a Canadian company and moves to Mexico what do unemployed
Canadian workers and employed Mexican workers have in common?
- both facing serious challenges as far as income is concerned
- exploitative assembly line
Factors to consider
Æ
extent of agglomeration (clustering) effects
- benefits for factories being located near other factories
- manufacturing zones -- compete, supply each other of inputs, extensive labour
force
Æ
size and skills of workforce
- different types of products that require skill/education
- gender -- women are more preferred for special tasks
- male unemployment is rising
- changes in household responsibilities
Æ
local and regional multipliers
- how it impacts on the economic development
- to what extent does income/investments trickle down multiplier in the economy
- unless there is enough money earned where a factory is within the economy, there
will be no money spent within the economy
-- factories end up opening up but dont pay their workers enough for them to spend
money in their local economy - getting ripped off
-- all profits made by off-shore companies go back to headquarters
Æ
loss of control over livelihoods or provides an escape from poverty?
- was never any
Æ
environmental degradation or new urban amenities?
- no regulations in fear of deterring companies & do not have the resources available
to build
- if established in an already entered-company (China) -- urban amenities have
already developed
Æ
post-industrial industries
- tertiary and quaternary sectors (now - becoming globalized)
- globalization of the service and information economy
--educated workforce that can speak English
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