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Lecture Note

Course Code
Susannah Bunce

of 4
July 15 th
, lecture 10: GGRA03H3
Government assessment: subsidies on HOV lanes ( high occupancy vehicle
Minster proposed idea that: if you drive hybrid you can drive by yourself in
car pool lanes but this will have a conservation rebound effect and therefore
will act as disincentive , the real problem is life style not technology
Electric vehicle run 50% electricity by coal ; burning coal than gasoline is
much worse will need electric powering stations, more coal = more P.C
Per capita age of carbon what really counts
SUV;s are ok if they hold 7-8 people , more efficient
Bus by itself is bad; street cars use less fuel but hold more people
Motorcycles not allowed in HOV lanes but they are more efficient b/c of its
fuel efficiency also made from less material ( only 400 pounds)
Wetlands are important for reducing flooding so it is bad to build homes on
Greenbelt plan: protected land
To accommodate 3 million more people in southern ON using low density
sprawl model you need twice the existing area of Toronto
Low density model is not allowed in Holland, Swiss land is protected in most
western European countries
Many municipalities in are negligent of protected sprawl because they make
money from converting farm land
Mississauga was primes agricultural land by now there is no agricultural land
only 7% natural habitat mainly on credit river
Non- native alien species are problem 1) removing habitat 2) replacing native
species with non-native species
Need protection and to improve land left based on common principles
Norway maple weed displaced native species , this invasive species is
replacing the native red maple tree
27% of all flora in on are alien species
Example of alien species: 1) purple loose strife which is a major threat to
wetland and is originally from Europe and it clogs circulation 2) taxicum AKA
dandelions also from Europe but not really a threat, they exist because we
created the lawn
The lawn = artificial mono culture apply pesticides
It is against the law to not cut lawn
¾ of habitat are removed, 27% are alien species
ON is mainly deciduous forest , smallest region and is the most ecologically
diverse has more species and has more species at risk that are threatened,
endangered or vulnerable
Urban sprawl is taking over
Extinct species is in the millions, there are still many species that are
Canada: 4000 species as more northerly colder climate less biologically
Extinction is a natural process: ex is dinosaurs ( many reasons for their
extinction such as Noah’s flood, climate changes, asteroid hit)
Modern events urban sprawl primary cause of species extinction
News: developers wanted to develop oak ridge moraines in Richmond hill ;
Dalton said he would stop development in oak ridge moraines if he was
Fragmentation of Hamilton area not one piece but a mosaic of farms and
developed areas, patches of forests ex six nations reserve it is a
maintained and protected land but the six nation reserve concerned because
they are trying to bring a highway which puts pressure on natural area in six
nations areas
Caledonia 1) pressure on land 2) unsettled land claims
- Violence and protests in six nations areas as building 1) curvilinear streets
2) detached homes
Video: global TV protest, happened in 2006 and lasted 2 years?
Video: Caledonia blooded
- Mayor: in favor of developing land and economic development vs
- Aboriginal want to preserve traditional ecological knowledge
- Dalton supports electric cars
Duglas creeck estates: land encroached upon by urban development, the six
nations weren’t educated
In 1848 they appointed Indian agents who sold the reserves for little money
( $25), they allowed the land to be developed
Video: dixi chicks not ready to make nice
Green belt plan is a threat ot six nations reserve , planners need to bring
structure to fragmented areas which leads to smaller fragmented areas
which are more susceptible to ecological stress as edges and habitats die off
…leads to
A) Connectivity: species move through different habitats
B) with development there is 2 core areas with 2 smaller areas …need to
bring structure to join the 2 spaces …open spaces are streets
C) natural heritage & plant move reconnect areas by allowing things to
D) regenerate link areas, no longer fragmented which increases
Will never get back to A but D better than B and C
We can use land use planning, planners have significant power
Natural heritage planning and greenway planning
1) Get inventory: lakes, streams etc…digitalize
2) Get natural features woodland, fish
3) Areas connect: riparian land is land along corridor therefore stop
development in areas
Now Toronto must find ways to connect and no development in between
which increases biodiversity and ecological succession