Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
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Geography (700)
GGRA03H3 (100)
Lecture

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA03H3
Professor
Andre Sorensen

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of 3
Urban, ecosystems, pollution
Urban ecosystem analysis
Cities as complex ecosystem
- Complex organisms with metabolic processes
- Huge inputs and outputs, structured by metabolic processes of production, delivery,
consumption
- Input & output can be measured and where necessary can be influenced by public
policy
Critical to understand nature of inputs and outputs
Cutting down outputs, such as recycling, is important
Water inputs & outputs
Huge urban input
Ensuring quality water supply is important to health
Polluted water is huge urban output
Successful 19th to 20th century water treatment policies, public water supply
Primary waste treatment, secondary , and tertiary treatment systems were installed
to prevent people from down the stream of the big cities getting sick
Current water challenges
Arise from the way we built our sewage system
Combined sanitary and storm water sewer systems used on pipes in cities, which in
reality needs to be treated in different ways
Works in dry weather, but heavy rain overloaded the systems, and water was
released into lake, river
The reason is because it caused too much to build two sewage systems
Cities are rebuilding systems to separate them
Storage for storm water surges
Point sources and non-point sources
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Point sources are those where is a clear point of discharge (factories, sewers)
Relatively easy to monitor, and progress to cleanup
Non-point source pollution is everything else (pesticide, dog feces, antifreeze,
gasoline)
Rain water is a big source of pollution, carrying road pollution into the sewage and
into treatment facilities (stuff that are coated on the roads such as antifreeze, tire
rubber, mechanical oil)
Non-point source include waste that cannot be identified
Sewage sludge were turned into fertilizer because of alternative to landfill and
incineration
Problem with pharmaceutical drugs is that 70 – 90% are not metabolized, endocrine
disruptors
Water treatment systems are just starting to catch up on our knowledge of the
problems related to water pollution
Major investments in retention ponds, buffers along streams, green roofs, etc
Developing countries
Water management is in short supply in poorer countries
Basic water treatment technologies are still only partially disseminated
Advanced technologies are less widely used
Air pollution
Just as big of a problem, point source and non-point source
Smokestacks, factories are increasingly well regulated since 1970s
Success in cleaning up factory emissions of SO2No
All are point source pollution
Except in developing countries such as China and India where air pollution is a
crisis
Also some non-point sources such as pesticides, deodorants, building material
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Current air pollution challenges
Automobiles
Even though pollution of cars have been cut down, it is still a serious issue
In Toronto, it causes 1000 premature death each year
Most air pollution growth is due to car and trucks
Asthma is big in children, it is a crisis
Also cause autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, eczema, lupus
Exotic toxins (PCBs, pesticides)
Japan was a major producer of dioxins because they burnt everything
Unregulated industrial waste incineration
Eating food contaminated by air pollution is the main way humans ingest them
Final exam
Monday, December 13, 2 – 4pm, in the gym
10 short answer questions, weighted equally
There are 10 sections in the course, each with 2 questions, only
answer one of each
Cover main content of lectures and readings
Think about the main themes of each lecture
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