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Lecture

GGRC02H3 Lecture Notes - Attractor, Sun Belt, Rust Belt


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRC02H3
Professor
Elrick

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Session 7 + 8: Migration
Typologies of migration: space, time, space-time, cause
International migration
One example for migration through space
Age strata
If we want to classify different migration types through time, then we might want to
think about the life course periods
Differentiation of migration types in different age strata
This means that at different times in life, you might want to think about different
types of migration
Nomadism
Certain groups of people in certain countries still are not settled down and move
throughout the year to different locations in time
Move to different locations in different seasons throughout the year
Zelinskys mobility transition
In different times the development countries/regions, we experience different types
of migration
Differentiated five different phases: pre-modern traditional society, early
transitional society, late transitional society, advanced society, and super-advanced
society
Looked at emigration, rural urban migration, urban urban migration, and circular
migration
oRural urban migration = from countryside to city
oUrban urban migration = from city to city
oCircular migration = refers to seasonal workers or migration types that are
quite common nowadays which are called commuting (is sometimes counted
as migration and sometimes not)
Remittance = money sent back to families; plays an important role in international
migration
Transhumance
Seasonal movement have different types of trees, which signify the livestock moves
during different seasons of a year
At the bottom is the sea level and at the top is the mountain
Farmers move from mountainous regions in spring to the next higher level of
mountains with all their livestock, kettle, goats, sheep, and have summer settlement
in the higher parts of the mountain where they have their kettles raised and come
back to their farm/home in winter time
You have more space and fresh grass that is available to feed more kettle than when
you stay at bottom of the valley
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In mountainous regions, we have different vegetations, is more nutritious than
bottom of the valley this is why farmers want to drive their kettles up to stay there
for the summer
Causes: economic, political, emotional, social
For people who migrate to developed countries economic migration is the most
used reason to migrate
If we talk about political migration, then we talk about refugees people who are
forced out of their country because they cant do anything about it in the sense for
example they raised democratic notions in the country that dont support the
democracy
oThis applies to dictators who are forced out of their country
Emotional and social reasons heavy reunifications, either with their partners,
children, or parents
Laws of Migration (Ravenstein 1895)
Most migrants only proceed a short distance, and toward centers of absorption
oCenter of absorption = location in city where there are lots of jobs to offer
As migrants move toward absorption centers, they leave gaps that are filled up by
migrants from more remote districts, creating migration flows that reach to the
most remote corner of the kingdom
oPeople move from place A to place B leaves a gap that is filled by people from
place C
oSome jobs are filled by Natives and they move up economically to better jobs,
so these jobs open to others to be filled, so now people with lower educational
levels fill them
oGap filling of ethnic groups is still in place in US = dual labour market theory
Each main current of migration produces a [compensating] counter-current
oWhen there are people who move from place A to B, there are also people who
move from place B to A
Migrants proceeding long distances generally go by preference to one of the great
centers of commerce or industry
oFor example, in Toronto, most immigrants coming to Canada are entering
through one of the major cities Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal (the
major commerce and industries in Canada)
oToronto is called the immigration hub in Canada because most people arrive
in Toronto
The natives of towns are less migratory than those of the rural parts of the country
oLots of people in countryside move to city
oAlthough this law is not entirely true anymore, it still holds true for some
countries nowadays
Another model of migration is called push/pull model invented by Everest Lee
oThere are some reasons that push people out of one region/country, and there
are some reasons that pull people into different parts of the country/world
oThere might be some intervening variables or obstacles between these push
and pull reasons...those can be: family ties, political turmoil, major
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