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Lecture 7

HISB31H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Crimean War, Jingoism

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Neville Panthaki

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JAN 26
Collapse of the concert/congress Crimean War (1853-1856)
Crimean war was the conflict between France, Britain, Ottoman vs. Russia
Jingoism (nationalism) over restraint
Domestic concerns dictate aggressive foreign policy
A short war would promote national cohesion
Because of this war, Russia removed from European stability equation (lasted 50 years until
Euro nations pursue self-interest over collective interest
Exercise of conflict option rather than diplomacy
War was made an element of diplomacy rather than something that should be avoided
Emergence of Nations by Force:
Italy and Germany emerged by force
Italian and german unification
Italy: war in 1848, 1859
Germany: war in 1864
Germany and Italy worked together in 1866 against Austria and in 1870 against France
This could not have happened without the consent of the euro powers
“war as politics by other means”
They thought that war was a military option for diplomacy
Construction of Germany:
The plan was to create germany by destroying the old order and creating a new one
First aim was to make Prussia strong in “germany”
Prussia was the biggest state and the driver of germany unification
Bismarck was the chancellor for the Prussian King (ruled under a monarchy)
The idea was the strongest states should not be lost in the new order
The second aim was to make Germany strong and maintain it in Europe
He wanted to make sure the germany survived after being created
Germany was destroyed after WW1
The idea is what is created by force can be destroyed by force
The third aim was to preserve and strengthen the monarchical-conservative order
He was quite autocratic
He wanted a democratic revolution, not a social revolution
He was not against Metternich’s system, he was against the aims
The first step to achieve these aims was to destroy old balance of power
He does this through policy of war: 1864 against Denmark in the north (consolidate), 1866
against Austria (regional) and 1870 against France (great Power)
The point is that none of this would have happened if the powers hadn’t fallen apart
Russia was happy that France and Austria were defeated
The second step is to maintain new status quo through the policy of peace and preservation
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