Ww1: euro nations pursue self-interest over collective interest, exercise of conflict option rather than diplomacy, war was made an element of diplomacy rather than something that should be avoided. German diplomacy: (1871-90) every single treaty made by bismarck includes: 3 vs. 2 alliance system (germany, austria, russia, uk and france) In a 3 on 2, germany will always be tied to two other powers so that they are in the majority (aka. Bismarckian math: isolate france fighting odds, maintain austrian empire. Make sure that no one allies with france and that france does not have. Austria is below germany and below it is italy (they are all in the middle of. Austria is a german monarchy ruling a slaviv population (multicultural) If austria crumbles, it will affect russia, germany and italy: keep russia on germany"s side (no 2-front war, defend status quo (social) Makes sure that france does not become friends with russia.