HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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24 Jul 2010
Lecture 5- September 29
x Kievan Rus had a strong urban aspect and broad agricultural base (quite balanced)
o As a result, the society was differentiated: different occupations and social events
o At the top was the princely family: all descendents of Oleg (Riurikide)
Evergrowing family. In order to qualify as a prince, you had to descend from
this family
The early members were varangians (Vikings)
Intermarriage caused the dhruzina to become Slavizides
The majority of the druzhniki were not land owners at first but were partners
with the prince in the trade business (profits were divided)
x As trade declined, more druzhniki received land as a way to support
The princely family and the dhruzina held power (dynastic)
o The local structure consisted of merchant families- middle class (also began with
Urban dwellers (lived in towns and cities)
Participated in trade
o Below were smerd(y)- the smelly ones
They included free peasants and free townsfolk
Small shopkeepers
The peasants tended to live with extended family
They owned their land (there were no deeds and leases)
x They could dispose of it as they choose
x They worked the land with their own factors of productions
x They were not slaves- they were freemen
x Paid the bulk of the taxes
x They had communal farming but rivers were shared with others
o Below were the Zakup(y)- (slavery to those whom they owned money, temporarily
until they paid the debt.)
Their children could not become the slaves
o At the bottom was the Kholop(y)- (slaves, POW or sold themselves to pay off debts)
Many volunteered to be slaves in order to be fed and protected
Most descendents were also slaves
Worked as servants, farm labourers and manufacturing enterprises (producing
with their hands)
In the lawcode, they had no legal protection
Piece of property
o Slaves were important for trade in the middle east (Baghdad)
o Once the Church was established, a separate segment of the society grew up around
the Christian faith
Everyone was under the moral jurisdiction
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