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Lecture

HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Wayne Dowler

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Lecture 5- September 29
x Kievan Rus had a strong urban aspect and broad agricultural base (quite balanced)
o As a result, the society was differentiated: different occupations and social events
o At the top was the princely family: all descendents of Oleg (Riurikide)
Evergrowing family. In order to qualify as a prince, you had to descend from
this family
o 1H[WZDVWKHSULQFH¶VGKUX]LQDSULQFH¶VUHWDLQHUVPHQDWDUPV
The early members were varangians (Vikings)
Intermarriage caused the dhruzina to become Slavizides
The majority of the druzhniki were not land owners at first but were partners
with the prince in the trade business (profits were divided)
x As trade declined, more druzhniki received land as a way to support
WKHPVHOYHVWKDW¶VZKHUHWKHPRQH\ZDV
The princely family and the dhruzina held power (dynastic)
o The local structure consisted of merchant families- middle class (also began with
varangians)
Urban dwellers (lived in towns and cities)
Participated in trade
o Below were smerd(y)- the smelly ones
They included free peasants and free townsfolk
Small shopkeepers
The peasants tended to live with extended family
They owned their land (there were no deeds and leases)
x They could dispose of it as they choose
x They worked the land with their own factors of productions
x They were not slaves- they were freemen
x Paid the bulk of the taxes
x They had communal farming but rivers were shared with others
o Below were the Zakup(y)- (slavery to those whom they owned money, temporarily
until they paid the debt.)
Their children could not become the slaves
o At the bottom was the Kholop(y)- (slaves, POW or sold themselves to pay off debts)
Many volunteered to be slaves in order to be fed and protected
Most descendents were also slaves
Worked as servants, farm labourers and manufacturing enterprises (producing
with their hands)
In the lawcode, they had no legal protection
Piece of property
o Slaves were important for trade in the middle east (Baghdad)
o Once the Church was established, a separate segment of the society grew up around
the Christian faith
Everyone was under the moral jurisdiction
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Description
Lecture 5- September 29 x Kievan Rus had a strong urban aspect and broad agricultural base (quite balanced) o As a result, the society was differentiated: different occupations and social events o At the top was the princely family: all descendents of Oleg (Riurikide)  Evergrowing family. In order to qualify as a prince, you had to descend from this family o 1H[WZDVWKHSULQFH¶VGKUX]LQDSULQFH¶VUHWDLQHUVPHQDWDUPV  The early members were varangians (Vikings)  Intermarriage caused the dhruzina to become Slavizides  The majority of the druzhniki were not land owners at first but were partners with the prince in the trade business (profits were divided) x As trade declined, more druzhniki received land as a way to support WKHPVHOYHVWKDW¶VZKHUHWKHPRQH\ZDV  The princely family and the dhruzina held power (dynastic) o The local structure consisted of merchant families- middle class (also began with varangians)  Urban dwellers (lived in towns and cities)  Participated in trade o Below were smerd(y)- the smelly ones  They included free peasants and free townsfolk  Small shopkeepers  The peasants tended to live with extended family  They owned their land (there were no deeds and leases) x They could dispose of it as they choose x They worked the land with their own factors of productions x They were not slaves- they were freemen x Paid the bulk of the taxes x They had communal farming but rivers were shared with others o Below were the Zakup(y)- (slavery to those whom they owned money, temporarily until they paid the debt.)  Their children could not become the slaves o At the bottom was the Kholop(y)- (slaves, POW or sold themselves to pay off debts)  Many volunteered to be slaves in order to be fed and protected  Most descendents were also slaves  Worked as servants, farm labourers and manufacturing enterprises (producing with their hands)  In the lawcode, they had no legal protection  Piece of property o Slaves were important for trade in the middle east (Baghdad) o Once the Church was established, a separate segment of the society grew up around the Christian faith  Everyone was under the moral jurisdiction www.notesolution.com  The Church had legal jurisdiction over people who were employed by the Church (the priests and their family, monks and nuns, people who worked on or maintained Church property, people who manufactured for the Church, people who painted icons (religious paintings), peasants who worked on the land of the Church)  In charge of hospitals, hostels, educational institutions and charities  All people of the domain of the people were tried in church court if the committed a crime o Tbe Russkaia Pravda was the lawcode for Kiev.  Punishment was by fines for almost all crimes  The murder of someone by an equal gave the right to their families for blood revenge  The greater the social status of the victim, the higher the fine  Fines tells us that money was very important in the society (barter was less common) o The region this state occupied had many layers of culture before Christianity  The Slavs brought their own cultures and traditions when they came from the Carpathian mountains  It would be wrong to suggest that culture began from Christianization  The population was illiterate before the Church x It was an oral culture o The heart of this oral culture was song and poetic recitals (passed down stories) o The byliny was the oral tales of the heroes (heroic events and epic events)  The heroes are not standardized, they had their own characteristics: Ilia Muroments (giant that was very strong), Dobryna Nikitch (represented loyalty and trust), Churilo Plenkovich (Casanova, the lover) o There were also fairytales (magic, mystery): tale of the Host of Igor (story of a prince who battled the Nomads on the steppe- a plea for greater princely unity)---a cautionary tale o A new cultural element was added when the Church state arrived (Christian culture + old culture)  Had a very strong impact x Imposed a language (Slavonic created by Cyril) x Religious books written in Slavonic poured into Kiev x Almost all written materials were religious x :HGRQ¶WNQRZKRZPDQ\SHRSOHZHUHLOOLWHUDWH x Christianity prompted literacy x Letters were discovered on tree barks (from wives to their military husbands) x The coming of Christianity should have opened up the culture to cosmopolitan www.notesolution.com x Byzantine culture was quite sophisticated, more so then the East Slavs were ready for (from and oral to written culture was difficult transition) x The Slavs adopted in parts o The Kievans were attracted to Orthodoxy for its external beauty rather than its theological ideas (Church architecture, icons etc.) o Going to heaven or not rests on adherence to Church rules otherwise damnation o There are no theological works generated from the Slavs x they had illiterate priests (education was not required) x they had a ritualistic form x the Church helped establish the Kievan state as a cultural unit (imposed education and religious traditions in Church architecture, icon and religious literature) o WKH6FDQGDQDYLDQVFDOOHGWKHODQGRI5XV³7KH/DQGRI7RZQV´  highly urbanized  suggests the importance of trade even though the majority of people lived from agriculture  most towns were located in high spots where you can see anyone coming  people moved around the fort (subarbs, growing outside the wall of fortresses) x along the main river routes (suggesting the relationship with townlife and trade) x served as a centre for trade gathering  many towns had manufacturing enterprises x once the princes arrived, they became administratives  some towns grew up in strong agricultural areas x provided farming products (ploughs) o The Posad (subarbian markets)  Divided into Konets (Konsty) x All the leather workers would live in one, sword makers in another (particular subarbs were concentrated in certain services) o 34 were discovered  Most artisans were freeman- work for themselves, sometimes employed by merchants and in business with the princes and the druzhina  Many slaves worked in craft manufacturing o A few towns had tens of thousands of people o Early Russian architecture was in wood  Towns were subject to devastating fire  Architecture illustrated folk symbols (the culture was very visual)  By the 12th century, stone fortifications (Kremlins) began to appear  Major streets were paved with split pine logs to overlay the spring mud and deep snow in the winter  The early Churches looked like Byzantine Churches x Russian Churches began to take a certain form (wood) www.notesolution.com x As Russian princes wanted to beautify their town, they brought Italian architects o They adapted Italian architecture to Slavic form and tradition (hybrid) o The civilizations was highly developed for its time  It had commerce, diversified social structure x Main threat came from the East (Nomadic threat) www.notesolution.comLecture 5- September 29 N Kievan Rus had a strong urban aspect and broad agricultural base (quite balanced) o As a result, the society was differentiated: different occupations and social events o At the top was the princely family: all descendents of Oleg (Riurikide) Evergrowing family. In order to qualify as a prince, you had to descend from this family o 0[9Z,89K057L3.08K7:]L3, 57L3.08709,L3078 203,9,728 The early members were varangians (Vikings) Intermarriage caused the dhruzina to become Slavizides The majority of the druzhniki were not land owners at first but were partners with the prince in the trade business (profits were divided) N As trade declined, more druzhniki received land as a way to support 9K0280O;08 9K,98ZK0709K02430Z,8 The princely family and the dhruzina held power (dynastic) o The local structure consisted of merchant families- middle class (also began with varangians) Urban dwellers (lived in towns and cities) Participated in trade o Below were smerd(y)- the smelly ones They included free peasants and free townsfolk Small shopkeepers The peasants tended to live with extended family They owned their land (there were no deeds and leases) N They could dispose of it as they choose N They worked the land with their own factors of productions N They were not slaves- they were freemen N Paid the bulk of the taxes N They had communal farming but rivers were shared with others o Below were the Zakup(y)- (slavery to those whom they owned money, temporarily until they paid the debt.) Their children could not become the slaves o At the bottom was the Kholop(y)- (slaves, POW or sold themselves to pay off debts) Many volunteered to be slaves in order to be fed and protected Most descendents were also slaves Worked as servants, farm labourers and manufacturing enterprises (producing with their hands) In the lawcode, they had no legal protection Piece of property o Slaves were important for trade in the middle east (Baghdad) o Once the Church was established, a separate segment of the society grew up around the Christian faith Everyone was under the moral jurisdiction www.notesolution.com
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