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HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Wayne Dowler

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x In the cities and towns of Russia was where the agitation occurred that led to the Ulozhenie
x Very few cities had developed into trade centres
x Novgorod was an exception but it was badly destroyed by Ivan III and Ivan the Terrible
x Most towns in Muscovy were military centres rather than commerce and manufacturing
x Around this centre was the market centre (posad)
x The number of artisans and skilled craftsmen was small. They never developed a sense of
togetherness. And they did not develop the guild rather functioning on their own
x The law code divided population of Muscovy into socialist states
x Each estate had functions that was performed on behalf of the state
x States were service gentry, peasants, townsfolk and Orthodox clergy
x The town estate was very small. The people who were registered as urban dwellers was low
x One of the problems with towns was that townspeople like the peasants often left the towns
and went to border to avoid taxes. This meant that an important taxpaying part of the
population kept going missing
x By the end of time of troubles, the towns are underpopulated
x There were efforts to restrore the towns by bringing back people. These efforts did not work
x The ulozhenie tried again to tie them down. It said that wherever people were in 1660, they
had to stay there. They could not leave
x Living in towns was hard. As a result, many townsmen had made themselves voluntary
slaves in order to survive
x The ulozhenie made it illegal for people to volunteer to be slaves. There were punishments
for violation of these laws such as being whipped in public or exiled to Siberia
x Despite this, townspeople kept running away
x Another law was established that anyone who moved or married someone from another town
would be executed
x Still people moved
x 1682, another law said that wherever they were at that time, they had to stay there
x A major problem was economic competition between different communities
x People would set up booths in posad and VRPHRIWKHPGLGQ¶WKDYHWRSD\WD[HVDVWKH\ZHUH
not registered. This made it hard for townspeople to compete as they were paying taxes
with the right to pay. Therefore, they were also in competition with registered artisans
x Almost all of the small trade and production was in the hand of the Russians. It was not very
sophisticated and organized. For example, wholesale and retail trade and the transportation of
goods had to be done by one person whereas in the west, it was a lot more divided and
specialization (capitalism)
x There were some large scale merchant operations but they had their problems. Russian
merchants were not free from the state. They were organized into guilds that were created by
the state that brought them under state control.
x You became a merchant by being appointed to a guild based on how much capital you had
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