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Lecture

HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Wayne Dowler

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NOV 24
Crimean
Kazan
Astrakhan
Zaporozhian
%RKGDQ.KPH¶QLWVNLL
Pereiaslavl
Stroganov
Ermak
Ob
Enisei
Lena
Kolyma
Baikal
Amur
Ussuri
Nerchinsk
Dezhnev
Bering
x Muscovy was creating itself into an empire
x The extent and the speed of expansion to the south and east was remarkable
x It was difficult to expand to the west because there were many organized territories already
(so conflict)
x In the south, the Crimean Tatars are in place and they are protected by the Ottoman Empire
x There is the possibility of expansion to the south, but there is conflict there too
x In the east, there are not many organized states to resist a serious Russian push
x Only the Chinese were able to halt their expansion
x The eastern frontier is open and Russian expansion there is spectacular
x Why states expand are for defensive and economic motives
x When faced with an enemy, like the Crimean Tatars, the natural impulse is to push back the
area where the enemy operates (create a buffer zone)
x Preferably, you defeat the enemy and annex their territory
x This motive in Russia is made more important by the flatness and openness of the country
with very little natural boundaries
x The Russians tended to expand in search for borders
x The economic motive makes them move into an area in search for resources and exploit that
area (for furs, honey, lax, salt etc)
x This search for new resources led the Russians across Siberia and on to the west coast and
establish trading posts into Southern California
x There was an additional economic motive which was the tendency of the peasantry to move
into new areas
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Description
NOV 24 Crimean Kazan Astrakhan Zaporozhian %RKGDQ.KPH¶QLWVNLL Pereiaslavl Stroganov Ermak Ob Enisei Lena Kolyma Baikal Amur Ussuri Nerchinsk Dezhnev Bering x Muscovy was creating itself into an empire x The extent and the speed of expansion to the south and east was remarkable x It was difficult to expand to the west because there were many organized territories already (so conflict) x In the south, the Crimean Tatars are in place and they are protected by the Ottoman Empire x There is the possibility of expansion to the south, but there is conflict there too x In the east, there are not many organized states to resist a serious Russian push x Only the Chinese were able to halt their expansion x The eastern frontier is open and Russian expansion there is spectacular x Why states expand are for defensive and economic motives x When faced with an enemy, like the Crimean Tatars, the natural impulse is to push back the area where the enemy operates (create a buffer zone) x Preferably, you defeat the enemy and annex their territory x This motive in Russia is made more important by the flatness and openness of the country with very little natural boundaries x The Russians tended to expand in search for borders x The economic motive makes them move into an area in search for resources and exploit that area (for furs, honey, lax, salt etc) x This search for new resources led the Russians across Siberia and on to the west coast and establish trading posts into Southern California x There was an additional economic motive which was the tendency of the peasantry to move into new areas www.notesolution.com x In the days of Kievan Rus, one of the chief occupations of the princes was to keep trade routes open x This was a struggle with the steppe nomads and initially, this entailed a good deal of Russian expansion from Kiev to the east and south x The nomads tried to push into the Kievan region and won too x As a result, there was a movement of population away from the south up to northeast x There were a couple of motives in the population movement. It was partly defensive and also it allowed you to get closer to the sources of wealth/trade x After the mongol conquest, the area around Kiev got depopulated x When the Golden Horde declined, the area became an open space with no authority so the Cossacks came x They began to impose authority over the region which encouraged a flow of settlers into present day Ukraine and south Russia x This attracted the Polish and Russian leaders x During the time of troubles, the Cossacks played a large part in the succession of the throne x At the end of the time of troubles, the area is still in dispute and the Cossacks are still active x There were peasant-cossack revolts but put down by the Poles x 1653, Bohdan captured Ukraine x +HXQGHUVWRRGWKDW KHFRXOGQ¶WGHIHQGWKLVUHJLRQIURPD3ROLVKDWWDFN x Most of his followers were Orthodox, so he appealed to Moscow for protection x Moscow agreed and made the Treaty of Pereiaslvl x Ukrainian says that the treaty was not annexation but Russians say it was x The Poles rejected the treaty as they said Ukraine was there theory x The declared war on Russia (1665-1667). Poles lose the left bank of the Dnieper River to the east. They keep city of Kiev. x 1686, the city of Kiev is eventually taken by Moscow x The acquisition of Ukraine was important because it was an important economic region (the bread basket of the empire) and a source of religion x The incorporation of Ukraine contributed to the tension between modernization and Old Believers (church schism) x Expansion to the east followed a different pattern from the south x Defense motive was minor, more economic motive x The expansion to the east began before the Mongol invasion for furs x The lead in the exploitation of the North was taken by Novgorod x After the Mongol conquest, Novgorod continued expansion x 1478, Moscow annexed Novgorod and continued the expansion x The Russian path to Siberia was blocked the Khante of Khazan and Khanate Astrakhan x Once those Khanates were annexed, that area became accessible x Khanate of Siberia was a formidable enemy and hindered their expansion x Most of the economic penetration to the east was the result of private iniative (private traders) x There was one family in particular that was responsible for subduing and settling the area around Ural Mountains (the Stroganovs) www.notesolution.com x They had the permission from the Tsars to establish their own kingdom in the mountains (a vast territory) x They were entrepreneurs x They engaged in the fur trade x They were very interested in salt and iron and copper ores x They established and operated the first mines in that area x The Stroganovs provided a base for a sustain attack of the Siberian Khanates x In the early 1580, a Cossack adventurer arrived in the Stroganov land with military in tow x It is not clear whether he was invited or if he came on his own x Ermak (the leader of the force) had the capability to attack the Siberian Khanate and he won x He presented his prize to Ivan the Terrible x This was the last serious obstacle for expansion into Siberia x 1580-1590, free traders lead the way into Siberia x This state was used to monopoly x The free trade system was not bringing profits into the state but into the hands of individuals x The free traders antagonised natives and provoked local uprising against Russia x The state wanted peace into the region so it could become prosperous x The natives of Siberia were descendents of Turks and none of them could resist Russia x The Russians did not trade for furs x Instead, this was a state accustomed to the tribute system x The free traders imposed a tax on the people it encountered x The policy that Tsar Boris adopted was an area was chosen for exploitation, and soldiers and engineers would fortify the area and then subdue the area x There were very few conflicts because it did not antagonise people x Once area was subdued, Russian settlers were brought in x This policy was suspended during the time of troubles x The Romanovs resumed it when they took power x Siberia consists a series of rivers that run from the south to the north x The first river system is the Ob River x The next is the Enisei and finally the Kolyma x The Russians moved systematically from one river to the next x Below the water shed in the southern and eastern part, the rivers flow in the eastern region x By following these rivers, first to lake Baikal and into the Amur and Ussuri rivers x When they arrived to the Amur and Ussuri rivers, they conflicted with the Chinese x The Chinese were able to fight with the Russian x 1689, both sides realized that the fighting was not productive so they formed a treaty x The Treaty of Nerchinsk formed a new Chinese territory x The Russians reached the Pacific before the treaty x 1648, Dezhnev sailed from the arctic ocean and into the pacific x He showed that American and Asia was separate x He did not realize what he had done x It was only with later voyages of Bering that Alaska was discovered x The rapid expansion in the seventeenth century had consequences on culture x Before the 17th century, Russia shared a common language, religion and culture www.notesolution.com x The conquest of Khazan and astrakhan brought Muslims into the Muscovite entity (that began the Russian empire) x In the 17th century, expansion of Ukraine brought Catholics x Conquest of Siberia brought many different people (Buddists and Muslims) x as the culture grew, the notion of a discreet territory was no longer adequate x it was replaced by the idea of an empire (a multicultural union was beginning) x the ideal of an Orthodox Tsar ruling over Orthodox people disappeared x another model was needed, one that deemphasized the centralization of religion in the state x WKDW¶VZK\7VDU$OHNVHLLUHMHFWHGERWK$YYDNXPDQG1LNRQ¶VLGHDV x the motivation for rule becomes more for the good of the people x WKHLGHDORIWKHHPSLUHE\WKHHQGRIWKH$OHNVHLL¶VUHLJQ x Peter the Great was the first to drop the title of Tsar (emperor was adopted (Imperator)) www.notesolution.comNOV 24 Crimean Kazan Astrakhan Zaporozhian 4K,3.K203L98NLL Pereiaslavl Stroganov Ermak Ob Enisei Lena Kolyma Baikal Amur Ussuri Nerchinsk Dezhnev Bering N Muscovy was creating itself into an empire N The extent and the speed of expansion to the south and east was remarkable N It was difficult to expand to the west because there were many organized territories already (so conflict) N In the south, the Crimean Tatars are in place and they are protected by the Ottoman Empire N There is the possibility of expansion to the south, but there is conflict there too N In the east, there are not many organized states to resist a serious Russian push N Only the Chinese were able to halt their expansion N The eastern frontier is open and Russian expansion there is spectacular N Why states expand are for defensive and economic motives N When faced with an enemy, like the Crimean Tatars, the natural impulse is to push back the area where the enemy operates (create a buffer zone) N Preferably, you defeat the enemy and annex their territory N This motive in Russia is made more important by the flatness and openness of the country with very little natural boundaries N The Russians tended to expand in search for borders N The economic motive makes them move into an area in search for resources and exploit that area (for furs, honey, lax, salt etc) N This search for new resources led the Russians across Siberia and on to the west coast and establish trading posts into Southern California N There was an additional economic motive which was the tendency of the peasantry to move into new areas www.notesolution.com
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