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Ancient Med Lecture Notes 1-11.docx

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Chris Wallace

Ancient Med Lecture Notes Lecture 1: Ancient med world 1 -Common era -BCE -centuries: 5th Century BCE= 490-400 BCE -Third Century CE=200-299 CE Approaches to the Ancient World: -Comparative literature : Zeitgesit -French/evolutionary school Reception: -our reading of a text is a meditated, not direct. -That meditation is worth studying Intertextuality -Meaning is relative, not absolute roman eagle-symbol of power symbol of authority- misolinis budge of sticks with axe next to it "likter's" (goon squad) carried them! unties bundle of sticks and will beat people if they step out of line axe for really bad people Interextuality In Action Vergil, Gerogia 4.1-7 "Next i'll speak about the celestial gift of honey from the air, Maecenas,give this section too your regard. I'll tell you improper sequence about the greatest spectacle of the slightest things,and of brave generals, and a whole nation's customs and efforts,tribes and battles. Labour, over little: but no little glory, if favourable powers allow, and Apollo listens to my prayer. What is History? "This is the record of what herodotus of Halicarnassus has learned by inquiry, displayed here so that human achievements shall not be lost in the passing of time and that the great and marvellous deeds--those done by Greeks and those done by barbarians -- should have their due renown, and especially to show why the two fought against each other." 2 core components of history: 1.Evidence (Kinds and relationships) 2.Emplotment (theories and models) Lecture 2: ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt: 3.agricultural revoluton : 5500 BECE 4.urban revolution: 3100 BCE -cuneiform • War between Umma and lavash 2500 • Sargon of Akkad unites Mesopotomia: 2240 BCE -Enheduanna Ziggurat • Reign of Hammurabi: 1792-1750 • Hittite Sack of Babylon: 1600 • Narmer Unifies Egypt: 3000 BCE • Old Kingdom: 2575-2134 -Mastaba, Djoser I: ca.2670 • First Intermediary Period: 2134-2040 • Middle Kingdom: 2040-1640 • Second Intermediary Period: 1640-1532 -Hyksos • New Kingdom: 1532-1069 -Hatshepsut: 1473-58 Akhenaten: 1363-1347 "Fertile Cresecent" Irrigated by Tigris and Euphrates • Cities benefited from trade • Tokens represented certain goods-trade • later was changed to cuneiform tablet with practice wedge-marks • centralized,effective authority allows for population expansion and growth' but this means you need more land! and all communities around are doing the same=contact=conflict • First historical event: war between lavash and Umma, 2400 BCE • war was totally at the hands of their gods (their patron deity_ divine authority decides everything in society and fate in general • stele of the vultures (artistic tablet) 2450 The Standard of Ur: War • two sided picture; one side represents Ur at War, one represents Ur at Peace=depicts life at Ur • war side: semi-divine figure in centre of picture; (beyond other humans around him) • peace side: central agricultural and economic authority; good planning; First historical person is Sargon of Akkad: 23rd C.BCE (suspiciously mythical) • his name means "just king" • he was the child of royal parents they decided to put him on a wooden basket cause they didn't want him , someone found him and raised him on his own (raised by a shepherd) • unites the entire region of mesopotamia • King of the new empire- finds the new city "akkad" • Sargon found dynasty and preserved it ; • Sargon major patron of the Gods, restored Zigguarats; enforced his daughter to be a priestess/princess • rain ruined the ziggurat's ,Sargon fixed up Zigguarats after he conquered • bad things happen to you=cause God's are upset , need to find out why they are upset Naram-Sin (2254-2218) Sargon grandson • his victory after Lubbi people • proclaiming himself to be the moon god-flesh on earth • wave in invasion of a new breed of people 500 years later from the chaos a new kind : King Hammaurabi • Babylonia becomes seat of empire -conquest of neighbours by 1763 • Similar codes exist before Hammurabi • Inscribed on a stele • he unified mesopotamia under babylon • code of Hammurabi is not the first law code, hammurabis is the first one to survive its length • collection of individuals decisions; meant to act as a guideline • sets himself as the abrader of order • punishment = social status (severity) normalizing social stratification with this cod The Epic of Gilgamesh • First written down c.1750; final form, c.1300 • based on real king? 0Euthemerism • very influential • Themes: -nature/civilization -quest -God=unfair -immortality (live forever, writing) • be content with your lot Egypt: • Nile travels up, • prevailing winds easy shipping travel and quick communication • Narmer Paletter- ( 3000 BCE) • suggestes unification of battle between upper egypt and lower egypt • image celebrating one guy taking both of those crowns • for egyptian history culieform • Rosetta stone, 196 BCE (translates hirelogiphic writing) • early years the only solid records • tombs underneth • old kingdom, the pyramid evolved Djoser the first ( first king of Egypt to be buried under a pyramid) • Over time the great pyramids of Giza 30,000 men working for at least 3 years non- stop • enormous investment ^ of man power and resources • King at centre, not yet pharaoh; administration conducted;no-mark smaller versions of kings/maybe chiefs of villages? • middle authority > centre authority Annual Nile flood, • fertilizing of crops • good for harvesting crops • Nile was easy to irrigate, much easier in Egypt then mesopotamia • nile is major embodiment between order and chao • one of the king's duties is the nile floods annually ( just like to make the ruse and set ect. ) • Constant circular Wisdom literature ( "instructions") • Older advisor- often father to son • Rich vs Poor • Importance of rehotic/fluency of speech - Theme occurs in greek literature and bible • Human order parallels divine order - King is to men as sun is to gods/nature - cosmi significance of kings actions • Not real record of advice: literary fiction • We read the instruction of Merikare: c. 2100 BCE Hatshepsut: • daughter of tutmosis • 1473-1458 BCE • Emphasizes stability, prosperity • First major queen • she is the first real queen • successful and stable of Egypts sore leader • feminist symbol • continued to rule even son was of age • "masculine elements" Temple of Queen Hatshepsut 1475 BCE Akhenaten and the Amarna period (1391-1292 BCE) • Major change in Egyptian society • new copital at Amarna • monotheism? • substitute of aren for amunre • artistic realism • unpopular? reversed by tut • he began to run into trouble when he made the shift, enforced the change on egypt, instituting first monotheism religion the ancient world has seen • only that sun disk would be worshipped • Major change in Egypt • akhentan= realistic art Lecture 3: Aegean Bronza Age and Homer 5.Cycladic Figurines: ca 3000 BCE 6."House of the Tiles" at Lerna: 2700-2300 7.Minoan palaces: -begin ca 2000 -peak 1750 -Mycenaean Conquest ; ça 1450 Knossos; Phaistos • Mycenaean Palaces -Begin ca. 1800 -Treasury of Atreus ca 1350 Lineear B • Ventris and Chadwick • "sea peoples" ca. 1200-1150 • Ramses III Troy • Schliemann • treaty of Alaxandu:1280 • Tawagalawas Letter ca 1250 • Traditional fall: 1180 Homer/Hesiod. ca 750 dactylic Hexameter The Cyclades(circle islands) • Cycladic Figurines only • painted and incised Cycaldic figurine Early Bronze age Greece: Lerna (2700-2300) • Clay seals from the house of the tiles, mark out clay food jugs around 2000 bce: Minoan Writing • all Minoan palaces are identical (Mallia,Phaistos,Zakros) • Long skinny rectangular rooms= storage rooms packed with clay pots stored with food • Females show up in most art-possessions of power • "Snake goddesses" -female MYCENEANS: • Palaces re-built by the Myceneans • palaces were identical like the minoans • they are surrounded by thick walls • The Mycenaean Megaron (richly decorated,focal point) • They Myceneans like to bury their money-all of their surplus was devoted to burials (elebarote burials)(EX,Niello dagger) • building Tholos Tombs • they had a writing system (linearB) • Shlieman looked for troy- in modern turkey HITTITE: • Built kingdom in the middle east • 13th century BC • Treaty of Alaksandu -King go Wilusa -Treaty with Hittite king Muwatalli II ca. 1280 BC The Tawagalawas Letter Letter from king of the hittites (probably Hattusili III 1267-1237 BC) to King of Ahhiyawa Concerns a trouble maker named Piyama-radus "The king of hatti and I [of Ahhiyawa]- in that matter of Wilusa over which we were at enmity, he has converted me and we have made friends;…a war would not be right for us." Ramessses III vs "Sea Peoples" -1176 • all micneans palace and minoan palaces were burned (best guess it was the sea peoples) • the Hittite kingdom was also destroyed - unclear what happened • Ramesses III fought sea people who raided all these medittereane cities and Egypt was the only one to fight them off Homer and History • Oral poetry • Dactylic hexameter • Lecture 4: Archaic Greece (800-490 BCE) 8.The dark age (1200-800 BCE) 9.The "Eighth century Renaissance" 10. The Rise of the polis -Basileus;Demos/Ekklesia; boule/Gerousia -Sparta;Lycurgus (ft.750) • imagined Communities • Alpahbetic writing -lyric poetry -"The Seal of Theognis -Lyric poetry; symposium • Figural Art -Orientnalizing Phase (ca 650-550) Kourus/Kore Phrasiklea Neo assyrian Empire (ca 900-609 BCE) assumpaspiral 883-839 Tiglath-Pileser III: 745-727 The Greek Dark Age: • Palaces destroyed and not rebuilt; population declines • Loss of Literacy • Loss of "Figural art" • Political Fragmentation -Wanax; Basileus -Loss of trade routes -End of bronze age,beginning of iron age The Polis: • Wide variety of meanings: -we say "city-state" -In Greek it can mean • a city (houses,walls,temples) • City and outlying territory (chora) • constitution/government/institutions • Citiziens esp. citizen-soldier Important features of a polis: • nomos (law/custom) • Citizen Participation -male only; free only; land owing, military service • three branches of Government • Magistrates (executive) -Powers and term limited by law (Dreros) • Coucil (boule,gerousia) -deliberaive bodies; usually older men • Assembly (demos,ekklesia) -Direct democracy; is sovereign Archaic sparta Helots -spartan woman have more freedom then any other woman in greece The greek alphabet • Adapted from the Phoenician alphabet in 8th century • Turly "Alphabetic" one symbol per sound (12-26 letters) • made literacy or at least "semi-literacy" more widely possible • nestors cup> earliest thing of writing Symposia: men trading values fancy drinking parties>men only forum of the performance of nero poetry Sappho-late 7th/early 6th century Trends in Archaic art: • Dark age art, geometric pottery (900-750) • "Orientalizing period • Kouros/kore -phrasikleia (540 BCE) • meant for use, intstead of art beauty Phrasilkeia • development of literacy and egyptian influence Assyria • flourished 900-609 BCE • Assurnaspiral II: 883-859 -Phrygia • Tiglath-Pileser III: 745-727 -Re-Organization • Assurbanpial: 668-627 -library • Falls to Medes and neo-Babylonians 612-609 Lecture 5: Classical Greece Assiryan Empire: Destroyed by Medes and Babylonians ca. 610 Cyrus the Great: 559-530 BC Cyrus is nursed by a female dog, and is saved (metaphorical, slave woman named dog) Athens/Attica athens faced a serious situation with formal policy thebes and sparta and aegina were invading them all at the same time athens large army were terrible because they couldn't work together athens sent ambassador to persian government for help, only if they give them earth and water as tokens meanwhile while those embassodrs are conducted that shameful business, submission to person rule never happened, athens tries to ignore it The Ionian revolt (499-493) 11. Aristagoras; Destruction of Sardis )498); Sack of Miletus (493) 12. Athenians agreed , and now Athens is another rebellion state in persian eyes 13. turned on Persia 14. Whole Sardis city burns down, old and sacred temples 15. darius 1st is not happy at all, he asked who did that and was told it was the Athenians, 16. wanted revenge on the Athenians 17. Athenians realized they shouldn't have done that, abandoned the Ionians and went home ends in 493 BC The Behitsun Inscription: • worst king the athenians choose to annoy • putting down revolts is his favourite thing Militades convinced the Athenians to attack good finish for the Athenians Marathon: Tomb of the heroized Athenian war dead Miltiades dedicated the helmet to zeus Athenians won battle against persia After Marathon: • Themistockles continues to warn them , that the persians are going to come back and its going to be worse, • Laurion (483 BCE) Athenians struck the riches silver line, the greek world has seen to date, southern tip of africa • demisticulus decide to build better warship with the money from silver • Triremes: Boat build for speed and manouver ability, dominate weapon in warfare for years • bY 480 , persian king wants to destroy athens, Persian War: 480-479 482 BC Xerxos starts gathering his army from all corners of his empire greeks have time to see invasion coming and start preparing for it they form the helenic lead, the athenians evacuate their city to island of salamis Xerxos's burns the whole athenian city and temples, revenge for burning the persian temples xerxos fleet is smashed (half of them ionians) without his fleet , discretion he leaves mardonias in the city of thebes to stay their in the winter with 300,000 Eurymedon river : 466? when the athenians told the persians that they didn't want them around their body of water Classical Athens: • Stasis (civil war, factionalism): • Cleisthenes -Isonomia • Ephiatles ( and his lieutenant, Pericles) -Demorcracy • Delian League (477) -Treasury moved to Athens in 454 • The Persian Wars as a "national myth" Pylos: 425 BCE Lecture 6: Classical greece Cont'd The Siciliam Expedition 18. 415-413 19. athens helps sagest selinus, quickly becomes a war against Syracuse (helped by Sparta) 20. Nicias vs Alcibiades 21. Is an unmitigated disaster for Athens The deceleian war: 413-404 • Alcibiades in Sparta -recommends occupying Deceleia • Alcibiades flees Sparta for Sardis , then Athens recovers • Battle of Arginusae -graphe paranomon • Aegospotami:404 -Lysander "the thirty" Critias Philosophy: • Plato: 427-347 -forms,education,dion • Aristotle: 384-322 -'Teleology' • Socrates: 469-399 -Sophistry,socratic method Athenian Drama: • city Dionysia • tragic flaw ,recognition,catharsis • The big three: Aeschylus (fl 484-456) Sophocoles (470-406) Euripides (455-408) • comedy: city dionysia 487 • Aristophanes (437-386) • meynander (320?-290) Earliest literary thearist=aristotle he has a theory of poetry (different genres of poetry) for a tragedy is not a representation of men but a piece of action in life, of happiness and unhappiness, which come under the head of action, and the end aimed at is the representation not of qualities of character but of some action; and while character makes me what they are its their actions and experiences that make them happy or the opposite Lecture 7: Early Rome 22. The Julio-claudians 60 (44/31/27) BCE-68 CE 23. Aeneas: ca 1175 24. Romulus and Remus: -753 -Sabine Women • Palatine huts' , Casa Romulu Evander Ccus • Roman Republic -509 -Brutus, Collatinus • The conflict of the orders -Patrician and Plebeian 'Secession of the plebs' (494,449) -Cincinnatus,Camillus Aeneas: The founder of the roman people, son of afrodite As a troy is burning around his his mom reminds him to leave, so he packs up his stuff and grabs his dad and grabs his son and the house hold gods and sets out, he forgot his wife crausa comes back as a ghost and says its okay First members of roman emperors are ethically trojan. Romulus and Remus: twin sons , from a princess who was secretly impregnated by the god mars, so she gave up her babies, nurse by she wolf, raised by sheppred More Legens of Early rome: romulus and Remus, and the Sabine women )From Basilica Aemilia frieze in rome) built 180 BC ,earliest evidence of the story of remus and romulus at one point roams kills his brother Remus (some say it was accidental some say it was on purpose) they decided to build an amnesty for any traveller,robber,passerby ect The seven hills of Rome: small communities of small huts Palatine huts , The roman republic • Tranquinius Superbus • Sextus Tranquinius • Lucretia • Collantinus, Brutus -Patris Potestas • Tria Nomina -Praenomen,nomen,cognomen -G (auis) lulius ceaser consul praetor senate comitia centuriata collegiality dictator __________________________________ Classical Greece cont'd/ Early Rome Peloponnesian War -Deceleianq War: 413-404 -Arginusae: 406 -Graphe Paranomon -Aegospotami:404 Greek Literature -Tragedy: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides -Comedy: Aristophanes -Philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, 'Sophist', Socrates, Critias Aeneas: 1175 Foundation of the city of Rome: 753 -Romulus, Remus, Sabine women Beginning of Roman Republic: 510 Brutus, Collatinus Consul, praetor, senate, comitia, Dictator Conflict of the Orders Heroes of the Early Republic: Cincinnatus (fl 460-438) Camillus (fl 396-360) Plato responsible for why we have gym class today, why we have geometry class, why we have music class there is only power and justice and the ability to destroy your enemies suffered huge military losses, thousands of ships, 10,000's of soldiers The Sicilian Expededition 415-413 Athens helps Segesta Selinus, quickly becomes a war against Syracuse (helped by Sparta) Nicias vs. Alcibiades Is an unmitigated disaster for Athens The Deceleian War: 413 -404 Alcibiades in Sparta He recommends occupying Deceleia Alcibiades flees Sparta for Sardis, then Athens, Athens recovers Battle of Arginusae graphe paranomon: it is illegal to propose a bill if it is contradictory to another law that has already been established and voted on by the Assembly Lysander, "The Thirty", Critias rumours emerged Alcibiades impregnated the kings daughter (Sparta) the Assembly is sovereign, all-powerful Aegospotami: 404 battle followed Lysander, trying to engage him in battle, followed him to a place where it was perfect to battle for him (surrounding walls, food, weapons, etc.) Athenians beach their ships, but have no food anywhere around so has to go buy food from shops near by Lysander attacks while they're buying food huge defeat, only one general makes it out alive thats the end for Athens really can't import food by sea, starved into submission when they do submit to Sparta, Sparta insists on unrealistic demands/terms (like the treaty of Versailles), have to take down their walls and reduce their fleet to 20 ships, and they have to ally with Sparta next century of Greece summed up by the author Xenophone continues Thicididies down to the 4th century prelude to another disastrous war century constant ever-changing battle between Greek cities Philosophy Plato: 427-347 Forms, education, Dion pupil of Socrates didn't publish his own works until long after Socrates was dead published everything Socrates said/did, but way long after it happened Aristotle: 384-322 from Macedonia at birth, moved to Athens was a pupil of Plato, then opened his own school 'Teleology' - everything is directed towards some sort of end/producing some kind of result you can see this in his "ethical philosophy" everything you do in life should be directed towards HAPPINESS make yourself happy! that is the end! prime goal in teleological theory Socrates: 469-399 Sophistry, socratic method Socrates teaching his ways to teenage boys, they would go home and inflict his ideas on their parents sophists - teach you how to lie in court/politics; train you to make your argument stick, no matter moralities sophists had a fee, Socrates did not friends of Socrates (and Socrates himself) said he wasn't a sophist brought to trial, everyone finally had enough of him (399) prosecuted for 1. atheism and 2. corrupting the youth (teaching them how to be smart- alecs) he loses the case both sides propose a penalty, jury decides which is more fair common for prosecutor to choose death drinks hemlock (poison) and dies Theatre of Dionysus at Athens where the play would be preformed Athenian Drama drama was really religious observance mandated part of state religion perform tragedy and comedy every year, annual thing City Dionysia "Tragic Flaw" The big three: Aeschylus (fl. 484-456) Sophocles (470-406) Euripides (455-408) Comedy: City Dionysia 487 tragedy is about plot, events, events aimed at stirring certain emotions in the audience (pity, fear) makes us confront those scary emotions in a safe way, the ones hiding in the back of our head (catharsis) "recognition" - person thinks they're on top of the world, and then something happens and then they're at rock bottom! (my life isn't as good as I thought it was 10 minutes ago) tragedies have much violence and action, BUT… religious occasions must be "pure" use the "messenger speech" to show violence, but not on stage so it's still pure fundamental element of tragedy: no one wants to see unnecessary pain inflicted about bad things happening to pretty good people (not the best people) comedy: sideshow, show about people who are dumb or ugly, just meant to make you laugh two Greek authors of comedy: 1. Aristophanes (427-386): old comedy 2. Menander (320-290) - made new comedy, only one complete play from him, gets ride of sex jokes, fart jokes, political attacks, a lot blander, a lot like a modern romantic comedy; most people don't like it as much as old comedy Early Rome The Julio-Claudians 60 (44/31/27) BCE - 68 CE Aeneas: ca 1175 Trojan The founder of the Roman People mom is Venus goddess of love and sex, father a mortal/human mom warns him to leave grabs his dad, household Gods (lucky charms), kid forgot his wife, she dies, but immediately comes back as ghost and tells him its okay and that he has to go start a new colony, pass on the Trojan line Romulus and Remus: twin sons of a princess secretly impregnated by Mars they're nursed by she wolf and raised by shepherd Romulus kills his brother Remus both built a city from scratch declared an amnesty for any traveller, robber, passerby, desperate man walking by all these men needed women had a "horse race" and invited women, then men picked out which one they wanted and kidnapped them Sabine Women 753 - year the city of Rome was supposed to be founded but other evidence shows in was inhabited 5th century BC The Seven Hills of Rome small communities of small huts important because one of these huts is preserved in the city to the 2nd century CE - "House of Romulus" "Palatine Huts", Casa Romuli, Evander, Cacus Roman Republic 509 Brutus, Collatinus Cincinnatus, Camillus The Roman Republic Tarquinius Superbus Sextus Tarquinius rapes Lucretia, Lucretia gets her people to get revenge on him/his city Lucretia Collatinus Brutus - kills his sons for the good of the republic, remembered as one of the "great sacrifices" -Patria Potestas Romans usually have three names: the Tria Nomina Praenomen, Nomen, Cognomen G. (aius) lulius Caesar Government Consul - 2 of them; like the president; 2 so one doesn't go crazy with power - elected by comitia centuriata, explicitly and specifically the assembly of soldiers within the Roman state; organized in a weird way; not direct election (don't count up an add all them up, each state has one vote) Praetor - military office morphs into legal position, like solicitor general - elected Senate
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