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Lecture 03

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Katherine Blouin

Lecture 03 CLAB06H3 Tuesday, January 23, 2013 Outline 1. Rome in the 5h – 4 cent. B 2. Rome’s Public Institutions 3. Roman Religion Rome in the 5h – 4 cent. B The Beginnings of the Republic - Tradition: o Turning point?  The expulsion of the Kings and the settlement of the republic o King = Tarquinius Superbus (Etruscan) o Rape of Lucretia (Roman, wife of Collatinus) by T’s son (Sextus Tarquinius) o ~509 – 508: << Revolution >>  Tarquins expelled from Rome o ~508: Tarquinius unsuccessful attempts to come back o Foundation of the Republic - Reality: Still obscure - What we know: o End 6 c. BC:  Decline of Etruscan power - Republic o Res publica: “public thing” o Stat ruled by magistrates - Republic = o Resistance to tyranny and monarchy + o Shared power between the members of the elite Rome and Italy in the 5 cent. BC - Border problems + demographic pressures on: o Latium o Campania o Greek cities (South) Incursions and Wars - 437 – 396: War – Rome/Veii (Etruria) - ~387: Gauls invade and sack Rome o A century of Warship  Victory over Veii 380 – 300 = Wars with Italian cities and communities - 380: Victory over Tibur, Praeneste, Volsci - 340 – 330: War against Latins, Volsci, Campanians, Samnites - 325 – 300: Take control of Latium + N Campania (Capua) 338: End of Latin cities’ Independence - Territory = Roman - Inhabitants = mostly Roman citizens - All cities = bound to Rome only - 335: Ostia founded Samnite Wars: 343 – 290 - 3 Wars - Final upcomings o Roman leadership secured o Many allied communities created o Wars continue until around 260 Magistracies - Elective (centuriate assemblies) + - Collegial + - Annual  - Power more equally shared between the rich an the powerful = - Mostly Patricians Struggle of the Orders - Patricians vs. Plebeians Patricians - Unknown Origins - Noble families - Claim o Political privileges o Religious privileges Plebeians - Heterogeneous groups - Far more numerous - Generally poorer - Against patrician’s monopolies What was at stake? - Political power o Assembles - Socio-economic issues o Land distribution o Debts 494 BC: Cessatio of the plebs - Tribune of the plebs o Since they are the majority of the military population o A military strike 450 BC: Decemviri - 10 men commissioned to produce a body of laws to regulate the Republic o Law of the 12 tables  They were engraved on tables of ones, and there were 12 of them - Substructure of actual Roman Law Law of the 12 Tables - Collection of specific and focused provisions o Suited for pastoral + agricultural communities o Marriage and divorce o Paternal authority (Patria potesta) o Debts o Disputes over  Land ownershi
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