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HISC52H3 (3)


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Michael Gervers

LEC02 2012-20-2012  Folklore, story of king Solomon and queen of Sheeba, rulers of Ethiopia needed to connect themselves further back in history, found a way to clarify descent from king Solomon, wanted legitimacy  Each newcomer needs to come with legitimacy, must have a background  In Ethiopia history there was a change in leadership, ruling class wanted to insure they were there before anybody else, around year 1000BC Solomon and David ruled  In the old testament it refers to Sheeba seeking king Solomon for his wisdom, in the Ethiopian account she has the child by him, her son becomes the first king of Ethiopian, Menelik the first  Sheeba was accompanied by a handmaiden of whom, Solomon gets them both pregnant, give birth at the same time, Handmaidens child becomes originator of the Zaqwe people who turn up in 11 th or 10 century, that leads to traditional Ethiopian history,  Sheeba associated in inland place in Yemen, known as Sabba, an ancient kingdom, they were thriving based upon capacity to manage water supply, built a major dam at a place called Marib, part of Sabbain territory, Queen went further north to find Soloman  Since the beginning of the 20 century the popular artists have produced comic book account of this story,  Story:community which is terrorized by serpent, people must feed the serpent so they make sacrifices of sheep, they get tired so they deicide to something about it, they go to a tree which produces poisonous sap, feed it to the sheep, then to the serpent, it dies,  Kingdom of Sheeba produces the Queen, discussion go on in the community, decided she must go and find Solomon, they used to worship the sun, now they are prepared to worship monopolistic God  Solomon introduces them to Judaism, on the even of sheeba’s departure, Sabba, Solomon in vites her to a banquet, lots of salt in the food, Solomon makes an arrangement that he her handmaiden and sheeba all sleep in the same tent, he says I won’t touch you if you don’t touch anything that belongs to me, at one point the handmaiden is thirsty because of all the salt in the food, handmaiden reaches up and drinks the water, takes her to bed, and then the same thing happens with Sheeba, legend connects Ethiopians with old Testament, belief, history, direct connection between Ethiopians and Solomon  Sabbain kingdom in Yemen, most of passage of culture came to Ethiopia through red sea, Eritrea holds all the costline to Djibouti, Ethiopia is now land blocked  Eritrea and blank are the oldest  Around 700 bc the sabians were sharing culture with Eritrea and tigray?, left buidings archaelogialcs sites, writings on stone  Adwa defeated Italians 1835  Adwa hills special, they are volcanic, there because the molten comes u from the center of the earth, then cools, then volcanic lava ash disappears the same time magnum cooled and left them, solid blocks of rock that weren’t blown in the air, core of volcanic, instead of it being the outside  Yeha, corner of sabbian temple, artifacts found in region, Yeha is still standing because Christians, th when they same in 4 century, they turned yeha into a church, already made a new religious building, retained sanctity, people did not tear it down, well made, best ancient buildings, dates back to 17 century  Aksum, ancient capital founded by Menelik, so they say  Lalibela well known, 11 churches carved out of or into the rock, in many parts of eastern Christian world, lots in Italy, hundreds of them in Ethiopia, Monolithic building, rock cleared away leaving rectangle in the center, carved to look like a standing church, pure rock sculpture, less vulnerable, when it was built, it was near Sokota, capital of Zagwe kingdom, this is in south western Tigry  Wukro Maskai Krestos Cave of, 12 century site, it also have stepped base, back 2000 yrs, Yeha, rock cut structures don’t need architects  Yeha Baptismal font,  Statue fr.Hawlt  Haoulti, female figure, on a throne, her clothing decorated to be silk, flowerlike pattern, people saying this must be representations of queen of sheeba, maybe a queen but has no name, Ethiopians call her Makedda,  Statue for Addi Akaweh Dedicated to r=temple of Yeha, dedicated to Sabbian ruler  Taakha Maryam, prechristian monument, a large construction, only known at ground level, only known by its ground plan, final place of resistance, archaeologists had no building to compare it with, central structure, 4 structures looked like towers at 4 coroners, 1 in Ethiopia today resembling this structure, called Yemrehanna Krestos, church build by the Zagwe, looked like central portion of this site, has to do with protection, defense against earthquakes  Calebs tomb, in Adwas hills,  Threshing, Way of life continues today as it did 3000 years ago, Teff, special kind of grain that only grows in highland areas, walk on on top of grain until its loosen from stalk, long process  Standing stele Aksum, great stone stele, 500 standing stones, mostly burial markers, until recently no one knew why they were constructed, they’re high, like 4 story building, Stele Park, in Aksum, its now held by a strap, in 1936, when Mussolini attacked Ethiopia in 1936-46, his people found these lying on the ground broken in pieces, in order to show the world their imperial success they shipped them to Italy and raised it in the center of Rome, the Italians were then chased out by Haile Selassie,  Rondals, are copying wood, not solid piece of wood, just a clasp, windows associated with sabbian temples, part of the language of building, in front there’s a reception platform, helps us understand the culture, the biggest part never vertical, its believed that it collapsed, bigger than nay block of Egyptian pyramid Reign of Aizana  Rules in the 4th century, contemporary of the Constantine, referred to as the 13th apostle, moved the capital of Rome to Constantinople, Aizana encouraged to convert because he was aware of Constantine’s empire, Bygantine controlled Egypt, influences of Nubia, blue Nile begins in Ethiopia  Aizana converted for political, economic purposes, he issued gold and silver coins, we see a period before and after, when he becomes a Christian he puts crosses on their coins, the first to,  He also carved his history into stone, the first to as well  Inscribe slab of Aizana, describes his successes, its in Ethiops, he also put it in Greek and another language  Wealth from gold trade, originated from West Africa, ivory, amber trade, th th  Don’t know what happened between 4 and 6 century  Tomb of King Kaleb and Gebre Meskel, part of a superstructure, tombs dug into the ground, then built up underground, Kaleb was called upon by the Byzantine Emperor, favor was the to go across the red sea and protect Christian communities of Sabba, there was a tribe of
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