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Lecture 3

HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Leprosy, Borderline Personality Disorder, Mycobacterium Leprae


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Lecture
3

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History
-The occurrence of leprosy has been recorded throughout history
-thought to be referred to in an Egyptian Papyrus document (1550 BC)
-In Indian writings, approximately 600 BC
-in the records of ancient Greece, after the army of Alexander the Great returned from India
(320 BC)
-In Rome (62 BC) with the return of Pompeii’s troops from Asia Minor
-Always been feared and misinterpreted
-Earlier thought to be a hereditary illness, or one that was caused by a curse or by punishment
by God
-Lepers were stigmatized and shunned from society
-E.g. In Europe - had to wear special clothing with a bell that would notify others of their
impending arrival
-Patients treated in separate hospitals and often had to live in colonies called leprosariums/
lazaretto/leper colony/lazar house
-First ‘leper house’ in England 936 AD
-Mid 12th Century - loss of civic status, removal from public office
-13th Century - 19,000 ‘leprosaria’ in use
-mass separation (set of rules, cannot enter church, cannot touch anything public...)
-disappearance 1350 AD
Dr. Armauer Hansen of Norway - 1873
-Discovers the leprosy germ under a microscope
-Mycobacterium leprae (M. Leprae)
-Not hereditary or caused by a curse. Leprosy is now called Hansen’s Disease
Etiology
-Chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae
-Slow multiplying bacillus with an average doubling time of 12 - 14 days
-Incubation period of 3-5 years
-Thought to be transmitted via droplets, from the nose during close and frequent contact
-Not highly infectious - may be related to genetic susceptibility
-Mainly affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes
Risk
-Leprosy can affect people of all races all around the world
-Most common in warm, wet areas in the tropics and subtropics
-Most common between the ages of 10 and 14 and those aged 35 - 44 years old
-Rarely seen in infants
Clinical Manifestations
-Indeterminate (IL)
-Tuberculoid (TT)
-Borderline tuberculoid (BT)
-Borderline lepromatous (BL)
-Lepromatous (LL)
Lecture 3 - Hansen!s Disease (Leprosy)
1
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