HLTA01 Tuberculosis.docx

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB21H3
Professor
HLTA01 Tuberculosis 12/02/2013 5:17:00 PM
History
TB ancient disease limited to animals
o Mycobacterium bovis
Egyptian mummies - 2400 BC
„Phthisis‟ or „consumption‟ – Homer 800BC
Hippocrates 460 BC - disease due to evil air but not contagious
Aristotle (384 322BC) –due to „bad and heavy breath‟
King’s Evil and Royal Touch
o Predominantly for scrofula
o Touched by royalty to “cure” the disease (Queen Anne was
the last)
Scrofula would come to king or queen for cure-
through blessing
Sometimes provided with a “touch piece”
Pictures w/ angels were thought to have healing
power
1000-1700AD
Romanticization
o Long thin neck
o Pale complexion
o Glassy eyes
o Rosy cheeks
o Delicate features
o Artistic creativity
looks for people w tuberculosis
Artist at the time have tuberculosis (people looks like
that
Treatment back in the days
1834 First therapeutic pneumothorax was induced by F.H. Ramadge
thoracoplasty was first induced by Swiss surgeon De Cerenville
o done without entering the pleural space and incurring the risk
of tuberculous empyema
Vaccine
Albert Camette and Camille Guerin developed
o With M. bovis
o Called Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
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Tuberculosis in the Canadian North
History
o From 1953-1961, 5240 Inuit sent south for treatment (almost
50%)
o Many never returned home
o Significant cultural disruption
o Language
o Food
o Traditions
Today
o Canadian 2010 incidence rate of 4.6/100,000
o Nunavut 2010 incidence rate of 304/100,000
o Twice the number of incident cases over 2009
Challenges to Tuberculosis control
o Issues of historical trust- due to colonization and disrespectful
treatment to the natives
o Poverty
o Housing
o Food insecurity
Clinical Manifestations
The most common type of tuberculosis is the pulmonary
tuberculosis
o central- appetite loss, fatigue
o lungs- chest pain, cough up blood, prolonged cough
o skin- night sweats, pallor
It seems like a cavity in the lung
Makes it hard to breath
It is a way for the body to wall off the bacteria
Millary/Disseminated Tuberculosis
o More likely to affect:
Infants
Elderly
Weak immune system
o Additional symptoms:
Abdominal swelling
Joint pain
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Swollen glands (body trying to fight it off)
Pott’s Disease
o Pathogen: Mycobacteria bovis
o Affects the spine
Scrofula
o Infection of the lymph nodes, most often in the neck
o Surgery may be required
Lead to open wound
Prominent Figures
Benjamin Marten- 1790 he suggested that tuberculosis are
infectious
Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec 1819- invention of
stethoscope: elucidated the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and
unified the concept of the disease
Dr. Robert Koch 1882 identifying tuberculosis bacteria
o Awarded noble prize
o Suggest tuberculin are harmless
Dr. Florence Seibert 1930s - isolating tuberculin still used in
diagnostic test today
o Invented test for TB, using purified protein derivative
(PPD)but not safe due to contamination
Dr. Selman Waksman 1940s - discovered streptomycin, first
antibiotic effective against tuberculosis
Herman Brehmer- 1859 open his Heilenstat in Silesian Mountain
village of Gobersdorf- the first facility devoted to the treatment of
tuberculosis
Pathogen
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
o Rod-shape
o Related to leprosy bacteria
Stain the same way
Have the same properties
o Acid-fast
Host Risk Factors
Tuberculosis endemic area
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Document Summary

Tb ancient disease limited to animals: mycobacterium bovis. Hippocrates 460 bc - disease due to evil air but not contagious. Aristotle (384 322bc) due to bad and heavy breath . King"s evil and royal touch: predominantly for scrofula, touched by royalty to cure the disease (queen anne was the last) Scrofula would come to king or queen for cure- through blessing. Pictures w/ angels were thought to have healing power. Romanticization: long thin neck, pale complexion, glassy eyes, rosy cheeks, delicate features, artistic creativity looks for people w tuberculosis. Artist at the time have tuberculosis (people looks like. 1834 first therapeutic pneumothorax was induced by f. h. Thoracoplasty was first induced by swiss surgeon de cerenville: done without entering the pleural space and incurring the risk of tuberculous empyema. Albert camette and camille guerin developed: with m. bovis, called bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) History: from 1953-1961, 5240 inuit sent south for treatment (almost.

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