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HLTA01 Cholera.docx

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Health Studies
Sandy Romain

HLTA01 Cholera 12/03/2013 6:13:00 AM Social effects  Poor blame the wealthy  Cholera is a good example of how society is divided Cholera Epidemics  1817 – China/Japan/SE Asia/E African coast  1826-1837 – Europe/N Africa/N America  1841-1859 – Europe/N Africa/all Americas  1863-1875 – pandemic  1881-1896 – Europe/N Africa/Asia/Americas  1899-1923 – Asia  these are areas where there are already social tension Victorian era  It is a time where there’s complete disguising of the body o Fully cover for wealthy  Huge population density  Industrial revolution- much more crowded Causes?  Poisoning of the poor by the rich o They believe it’s a way for the rich to get rid of the poor  Murder for the procurement of bodies for medical examination o People believe that hospital were going to kill their love ones for experiment  Public health containment measures ineffective and meant as merely: o control of the poor or revolutionary o to cut off trade and starve the poor o to acquire the bodies of the dead for medicine  religious way of burial needs to remove o use old method to prevent cholera o they were ineffective but harsh John Snow and the Broad St. Pump  Believed a “poison acting on the alimentary canal” o 2 believes, one comes from the air (miasmas) and contagion theory  Introduced how?  1854 London epidemic o 500 fatalities in 10 days o Within 250m of Broad Street pump o In a very small contain area John Snow- Epidemiology  Examined drinking habits of: o 83 who died of cholera o 535 workhouse inmates o 70 brewery workers  0% cholera because they drink filtered liqueur  he examined individuals in the area and then compare it to other  73 people live near the Broad St pump  10 of them near other pump o but they like the taste of the Broad St pump Southwark, Vauxhall and Lambeth  Snow also look at other water companies  These companies get water from the same source  They have higher cholera rate Vibrio Cholerae  Have a flagella that allow them to move around water  Many serotypes of variable pathogenicity  Can survive in water ~25 days o Heat can bloom cholerae  Can survive on fomites ~7 days  Produces cholera toxin resulting in rapid fluid loss o Drawing salt from the cell of bodies  Found in: contaminated water or food, shellfish Host Risk Factors  Genetic o Cystic fibrosis protect against cholera  Mostly European society  Inability of chloride channel o Type O blood  Twice as likely to get it  Low gastric acidity  Consuming raw shellfish  Casual contact is NOT likely to transmit disease o Caring for someone will not get it Environmental Risk Factors  Toilet that goes into water sources will lead to higher chance for cholera  Tropical and temperate seasonal  Inadequate infrastructure, sanitation, clean water  Displacement, war, natural disasters o E.g refuge camp with dense population Cholera Characteristics  Incubation period of 2 hours to 5 days o Depends on amount of cholera  Fluid loss of up to 2 litr
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