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Lecture 4

Sep 26 hltb21 lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
R Song

Sep 26, 2013- Lecture 4 Paleopathology The study of ancient diseases and injuries • Hard tissue lesions: nature of bone change, what’s affected, extent, etc. • Skeletal distribution • Population incidence • Origins, causes and spread • Spatial and temporal patterns (evolution) • Includes animal diseases, mummies, coprolites and various lines of evidence Sources of Information • Art (visual, pottery) • Written sources • Cemetery records: those in higher positions are buried in tombs • Oral tradition • Material culture • Faunal material: animal material which gives us indication of diet • Botanical remains: • Food residue: indication of diet and nutrition • Coprolites : preserved human species • Human remains (soft [mummies]/hard tissues) • Lazzaretto Vecchio, south of the Venetian Lagoon in Italy • th th centuries 15 and 16 • World’s first “lazaret” in Italy > disease quarantine colony > (died of plague, leprosy) Challenges Trying to identify which parts belong to whom; very difficult to do that. 1. Lack of well-documented, clinically diagnosed skeletal samples to use as controls against which unknown skeletal samples can be compared 2. Difficulty in finding skeletal abnormalities or patterns of abnormalities that are unique to individual diseases 3. Others...?-> generalized bone response; on the bone, the disease look similar “Crowd Diseases” Started in parts of the old world • Acute infectious diseases, highly mortal • Once it came to a population where there was no immunity, there were a lot of deaths • Rapid onset, short duration • Smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, yellow fever, chickenpox, influenza, whooping cough, typhus • Death or recovery (and immunity) • After agriculture and urbanization • Importantly: new domesticated animals, esp. cattle & pigs • Skeletal expression?  most diseases will not be preserved by archaeological records Bony Responses • 1. Formation • 2. Destruction / Loss Non-Specific Infections Periostitis & Osteomyelitis (more chronic version of infection in bone) Periostitis/Periotosis (extra plague grown on top of bone) Osteomyelitis: hallow, spongy bone gets penetrated, and reflect chronic infection Chronic Iron Deficiency  Porotic Hyperostosis,  Cribra Orbitalia  Persistant infections in life  Being anemic might be the body’s way to adapt to infectious disease; it withholds iron Developmental Defects of Enamel  enamel hypoplasia  Wilson bands Growth and Development  A comparative pair of 5-year-old skeletons. Both 5 years old. An 8,000 year old Archaic skeleton showing nutritional deficiencies and infectious disease, and a Modern, healthy 5-year-old.The Archaic skeleton is 32 1/2 inches tall. The Modern skeleton is 37 inches tall. Dental Infections  Caries: cavity  Abscess: more severe cavity that spreads to bone  Calculus : bacteria trapped  Periodontitis: infection of gum Blood infection leads to systematic body infection, hence death Link between oral disease with heart disease Socioeconomic, nutritional Kids who have more disease in childhood, they tend to be shorter than kids with no diseases Specific Infections Leprosy Mycobaterium Leprae 
• Primar
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