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Lecture

HLTC05.Oct9.SS.doc

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTC05H3
Professor
R Song
Semester
Fall

Description
2012-10-09 HLTC05H3 F Lecture 5: The World System and Global Disparities in Health • The neoliberal policy has made the world more globalized • The different types of structural violence that have been allowed to thrive due to certain policies that have been put into place by neoliberal economic ideology by transnational corporations and continue to perpetuate it • In contrast to social determinants of health is the neoliberal policy; all nations have a dominant class that subscribe to neoliberal policy and allows this policy and the dominant classes to thrive and influence almost all aspects of living • Neoliberal ideology put into place in the 1970s and 1980s primarily by US and UK o Deregulation of the market o market liberalization o Cutting social spending o Creation of free trade  Therefore eliminating borders and barriers o Privatization (loss of control and also loss of jobs and workers’ rights) o Increase in competition o Overall notion of individual responsibility is perpetuated rather than communal responsibility  Neoliberal policy has created a loss of jobs and  Problem w/outsourcing jobs • Consequences of shifting jobs from the main market to the peripheral markets; cheaper products but increase in structural violence in developing countries o i.e. the women working in maquiladoras in Mexico • Job losses in North America • Supranationals= more power than a lot of countries; global development and trade organizations (not third party have a direct hand in manipulating and widening disparity of inequality within and outside countries) • TNC= transnational corporations o Particularly the United States that have many labels • Neoliberalization of society has also occurred with the presence of economic adjustment programs such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund o Stipulation by these organizations they had to follow four key policies that are essentially key points in neoliberal policy  Export-oriented development strategies  Liberalization of trade  Deregulation of the market  Privatization o Thought to be beneficial because it would bring in investment and new technologies to assist economic development and help infrastructure; however this did not happen (i.e. devaluing of the currency making it easier for foreign investors to invest in a country but the cost of living goes up) o Cuts in basic social services o Cuts in subsidies for basic items • Reality in the 90s and afterwards… o Grew in greater debt and poverty (look @ slide 10) o Countries that have the most poverty and are also the most indebted  Greater poverty and increased marginalization of the poorer nations whereas greater wealth in hands of a smaller few (social, political and economic power) • Transnational corporations have been a part of the globalizing image and also influential in the health disparity of the world by: o Labour practices= overcrowding, poor health and safety conditions; subcontracting work out. Export processing (free trade) zones; TNC has greater impact than a locally owned factory because they cut off the state from enforcing regulations in those corporations  The way in which they conduct their investment is problematic  Union busting= eliminating the concept of minimum wage and also breaking up unions (ie. Unions in Wal-Mart) o Environment= TNCs going to foreign countries that involve chemical and spew out many chemicals and waste (ie. British Petroleum oil spill off the coast of Louisiana & also colton in Congo  Resource colonialism  Biodiversity issue and genetic modification of food; possible ecological consequences  Exportation of toxic wastes to other countries  TNCs and the effect on social determinants of health as well as overall health  Population displacement due to the environmental contamination and change due to the TNCs  Rape and torture is a common consequence of violence o Advertising and promotional activities= advertising that is good for the western economies  Eg. two-thirds of men (and children) smoke and create culture of smoking and a future economy for tobacco; starting young in terms of advertising • This type of advertising is allowed to thrive b/c of their designation as a non-core nation and also because of decreased regulation • Policy environment= (look @ slide 20) o Thinking about how neoliberal policy emphasizes i
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