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Lecture 3

HLTB02 lecture 3 and 4.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

HLTB02 lecture 3 – Evolution of human growth and development -what triggered the evo of modern human? -heterochrony: became modern humans when pre-existing life-stages were altered (by neoteny or hypermorphosis) -Bogin: argue against heterochrony-instead of alteration, an insertion of new life stages (chidhood) -He/He2/Hs: larger skull, larger brain, longer period of growth and development, childhood* (born with max 450 cc, anything above=growth) -Australopithecines: Lucy; 400-500 cc, no childhood yet, brain size very small, could be given at birth -Early homo: habilis and erectus, erectus period when childhood was selected for, adaptive advantage -childhood: unique to humans, infancy decrease, lower period of breastfeed=have more kids, higher lifetime fertility, advantageous to early ancestors that was selected for -why childhood: brain growth, acquisition of technical skills, increased time for socialization - childhood functions: (why develop childhood in modern humans?) feeding adaptation (can eat adult food, need for breast milk, allow mother to have more kids), care-giving behaviour (look cute, want to take care of, less likely to be abused, more positive feedback from adults), reduce competition to food (look small/babylike, not threatening to adult men, inexpensive to feed), decrease mothers for care (weaned children, can be taken care by other family members/community, moms can concentrate on taking care of younger kids in need of breast milk), developmental plasticity -Bogin: childhood is vital insertion of life stage that allowed humans to thrive -improve evolutionary fitness: more children, more children that can survive into adulthood The ecological model of child development -ecological model (1979): microsystem (immediate environment), mesosystem (interactions of family members), exosystem (broader community), macrosystem (global ideology), all the factors that can affect the health and development of children -WHO: spheres of influence; individual child, family, residential community, ECD programs, regional, global, factors that affect growth and development of children -individual child: -Hertzman: social environment, differences are LT, influence all aspects of social, cognitive, physical development -Irwin: children not passively accept, they actively shape environment also -family: source of social and economic resources, social (parenting skills, cultural practices, etc), economic (wealth, living conditions, etc) -SES: gradient effect (association of SES and health of children), resources affect all other aspects of family environment, represents status/wealth/social prestige, higher SES=better outcome for children (better school performance, healthier, increased literacy), persists throughout lifespan, low SES=poor outcome later on in life even if high SES in the future, due to sensitivity of developing brain in infancy/childhood -consequences of malnutrition and low SES: disease, poor phy/mental development, lower grades in school, more susceptibility for infections, lower immune system, more chronic illnesses, increased mortality rate -family health: phy/mental health of family, DV, maternal depression, chronic illness, addiction, HIV (orphan), etc -father: important for child care, role of insuring better gender equality, give economic power to wives -gender: inequality of power for wives impact children, female children (infanticide, abused, aborted) -family dwelling: living environment, running water, hygiene, can facilitate infectious disease, overcrowding (poorer air quality), dampness -family support: services that help parents about parenting, educational services, day-care -resilience: stresses in daily life, family can buffer children from external stress, require safety nets beyond family nets (social protection policy, lower child poverty) -an example of biological embedding includes: the role of infant nutrition in later adult employment success (adult health is affected by early childhood development HLTB02-lecture 4 -variation in human growth and development (human beings are very diverse, height, physiological growth, between ethnic groups, within ethnic groups, etc), variations start in childhood -humans a
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