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Lecture 3

HLTB02H3 LECTURE 3 notes recap of lecture two.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
R Song

ENGB02H3 LECTURE 3 Heterchrony Process of Neoteny:  Retention of juvenile characteristics in adult faces o Retardation of somatic development Hypermorphosis:  Same stages, but prolonged o Results: larger body, brain, longer learning stage/lifespan o To explain why human brains are much larger than chimps although we have so much physiological similarity Bogin:  Human species evolved because of introduction to NEW LIFE STAGES into pattern, not heterochrony  Insertion of childhood for continuation of brain growth o Some ancestor had some kind of beneficial mutation (adaptive advantage) and developed over time Earliest Childhood:  Infancy prolonged, and then in Homo habilis, childhood appeared and got longer along the species, Homo erectus  Homo sapiens, etc. (shorter infancy and juvenile periods)  Accounts for the speciation, the splitting and becoming of genus Homo  After 400 cc of brain matter, actually need time to develop after birth (break open birth canal if came out fully developed) o Therefore, childhood came about as a stage to develop it Childhood: Long period of dependency in which brain growth is nurtured and fitness is increased  Advantages: o Reduced infancy (nursing/breastfeeding) = mother can start menstruating earlier and can have more children  reproductive success (greater lifetime fertility) o Elicits care-giving/nurturing behaviour o Reduced competition for food/minimize starvation (can be fed adult foods, but not too much since small bodies) o Decreases pressure on mothers for care and provisioning (kids watch each other) o Extended period of developmental plasticity, especially for brain growth, acquisition of technical skills and time for socialization, play and development of complex social roles and cultural behaviour o IMPROVED EVOLUTIONARY FITNESS LECTURE THREE, ACTUALLY: ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF CHILDHOOD  Microsystem: immediate place where kids live and people they interact with (family, in one unit = house)  Mesosystem: interaction between above (neighbours and such)  Exosystem: extended family. Media  Macrosystem: pretty much society in general – general ideologies and values, etc. Global. Rings of influence:  Actual child  family  etc. Pretty much above in flow chart form 1. Individual child a. Sex and genetics – Biological embedding (coined by Hertzman) : “the process of early experience becoming solidified and influencing health and development over the long- term” aka = Malnutrition in infancy and childhood has long-term effects i. Experience alters biological matters ii. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT that leads to bio-developmental states iii. Stable and long-term iv. Effect health, education, well-being of child (to become adult) b. Health, nutrition, well-being of mot
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