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Lecture 3

HLTB02 Lecture 3.docx

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Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

10/3/2012 HLTB02 Issues in Child Health and Development Lecture 3 - Immunity – resilience o Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system  Anything that refers to a defense system that defenses the body against a foreign agent  Stress can be an agent that causes harm to the body • Leads to a reduced immune system o Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interaction of behavioral, neural, and endocrine factors and the functioning of the immune system  All systems are interconnected (influence each other)  How someone feels and what is going on in their lives will have an influence on the immune system  When it comes to the body’s natural defenses, we cannot treat the body without considering the mind - Role of the immune system o To protect the body from invaders  Invaders causes a negative impact on health o Recognizes the enemy, mobilizes forces, and attacks it o Complex processes that the immune system is involved in  Different organs  Specialized cells  Hormone messengers  Lymphatic system o Main forms of defense  First line of defense: • Mechanical – the skin or the sticky membrane will not allow something to enter the body 1 10/3/2012 o Can prevent agents from entering the body • Physical – the processes of coughing or sneezing or vomiting o Physical way to defend against an agent • Chemical – tears o Prevent agents from entering the body, while simultaneously washing the agent away  Second line of defense: • Agent passes the first line of defense • Causes changes to the body (ex: fever)  Third line of defense (how to overcome the agent once it has entered the body): • Natural immunity – implies that a person will naturally overcome the agent o Can be inherited via environmental factors • Genetic immunity – biologically based immunity that allows an individual to overcome an agent • Acquired immunity – develop a temporary ‘cure’ to the agent that allows them to overcome it - What is the immune system’s biggest enemy? o Stress is the biggest enemy of the immune system o When looking at child development, events that would not bother an adult would have a significant effect on a child  Moving to a new environment  Events that are considered significant for the child (causes stress)  Separation anxiety – living through a divorce  Bullying - The Gradient o The common pattern of increase or decrease in a health outcome variable that is related to an increase or decrease in a measure of socioeconomic status (SES)  Want to know how changes in SES affect a particular health variable 2 10/3/2012 o Breakdown into the socioeconomic variable versus health outcome variable (when analyzing graphs) - Within a social determinants of health perspective o Health risk factors operating at the population level, are as important as the individual risk factors  The root of ill health can be found in such determinants as income, education, and employment • Can also be found in the material environment and lifestyle  Socioeconomic gradient affects Canadian children different o Three big facts:  Differences in income distribution will affect the health status  The bigger the SES or income gradient, the steeper the differences in health status  Gradient effects are found throughout history, across all countries and are persistently correlated with developmental health status and outcome, when controlling for individual factors • In general, socioeconomic status impacts health o Socioeconomic gradient effect on child reading performance  Compares US experience with Canadian experience for children and their reading performance  US graph had a larger gradient between socioeconomic variable and reading performance  Clear relationship between mean SES (of the school the child attends) and the level of reading ability of children attending that school - The Gradient and Children o Longitudinal population studies suggest that early experiences can have an effect on later health outcomes (even prenatal experiences)  Fo
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