Lecture 6.docx

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International Development Studies
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Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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IDSB04 – Lecture 6 - Societal Determinants of Health/ Social Inequalities in Health  Data of life expectancy and GDP per capita shows the lack of redistribution through  Political Economy framework (309) o Distribution of power o Economic, social resources o Shape health o Class relations and structures of societies  What is to be done? o Increase economic output o Medical healthcare spending o Examine societal determinants of health  Graph maps per capita income and life expectancy (2000) o Looks like higher income leads to longer longevity o Countries with relatively low income have varied life expectancy o There is no relation b/w money and age o Wealth is much more concentrated in Nigeria than it is in bangledash  Income p/capita life expectancy; health spending o Countries that spend far less on health care have long expectancies  Box 7-1  Political Economy Framework o Look at imperical levels of how these interact  Individual experience (p 312) o Genetic conditions (outcomes socially mediated)  G-mapping hope is lost:  It will not pan out because it does not take into account of environment conditions  Nature and nurture are linked o Personal agency and decisions  Completely divorced from conditions that we live in (stress levels etc) o Behaviours o Lifecourse trajectories  What you’ve experience with yourself in the past  Eg. Early childhood development  Chemicals that you are exposed to  Experience influence health along the life course  Living conditions (p. 313) o Water and sanitations  Piped water is more likely to be filtered  Theoretical access  Iraq’s pipe water access have been contaminated because of war  Sri lanka o Has to do with water going to community levels, not individual levels/access to water o Nutrition/food security/sovereignty  Communities have control of what is grown in the area  Industrialized companies dumping = food insecurities  Costa Rica had conscious govt policy surrounding food security  Increase in women’s energy intake o Housing o Neighbourhood conditions o Public health/med care o Culture and religion o Transport  Social Policies and Govt Regulations (322-27) o Income and poverty o Education o Work conditions o Environment o Violence o Social in/exclusion; social support o Human freedoms  Poverty Rates OECD Countries o Mexico is the highest with almost 30% poverty rate o Canada 15%  Redistribution is most protective of the old population as oppose to the high child poverty rate  Politics (gov’t and neighbourhoods, regions etc) o Europe less than ~10%  Healthcare systems help avoid illness IMMISERATED  Unequal distribution of income  Europe has a active redistribution system  Int’l Comparison of Absolute Poverty o Food Med Care and Clothing o Housing and education are not incl in survey o Japan has the lowest percentage of respondents who said they could not afford to procure daily necessities due to lack of income o Canada  Cold weather  Universal health care does not apply to ppl who are not exactly Canadian  Drugs are not covered under plan  Transportation costs  This survey doesn’t ask if you have a balanced meal, just if you have access to buy food  Old Yiddish proverb o When a poor man eats a chicken, one of them is sick  The only way a poor person can get a chicken is to buy it for cheap; the chicken has disease  Jewish penicillin  Either he’s sick because he needs to survive, or the chicken’s sick because thats all he can afford  Education o Figure 7-2 o The less education you have, the less you can survive the break-up of the USSR o Education reflects high socio economic status  Enables employment in difficult economic times  Americans Lead the World in Hours Worked o Korea – 2357 hours; Greece 2000 hours; US 2009 - 1997 o Have less time for leisure and health  Work Conditions (324-5) o Work conditions affect health at four levels... (see book)  Work and health (p 325) o 250 m occupational injuries p yr o 1.6 m occupationally-related de
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