chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

IDSB04:Lecture 4 17:15 The demographic transition (chapter 2: box 2-2) Virtually all societies have gone trough a transition from: High mortality, high fertility OR Low mortality, low fertility This is a theory, not a fact, generation of families over time is an example, family household decreases with each generation Two social philosophers: Malthus and Marx Thomas R.Malthus, An essay on the principle of population (1798): Population increases geometrically ;subsistence arithmetically. Poverty is the result unless there is moral restraint. Problem is increasing arable land, watering, fertilization, and industrial agriculture. Karl Marx, Das Kapital (1867): Each mode of production has its corresponding mode of reproduction Feudalism where people where tied to land and the more offspring a family had the more people were able to harvest therefore you had a low fertility rate Possible Explanations for Decreased fertility Shift from subsistence agriculture to factory means smaller family size needed. Higher marginal cost of extra child in urban settingdecline of multi-family household. More women educated and in paid labor force. Education could be more work opportunities but it also mean more knowledge about contraceptive more negotiating power in the family Development of social security systems. No longer depending on your offspring during your old age, there is a retirement plan. Long workdaysshift work=less leisure time Contraceptive technologiesbirth spacing (1840s condoms). Preference, economic conditions, family planning and population control which have been coercive. Women in Puerto Rico were forced to sterilized in the 1800s. Abdel Omran and the Epidemiologic Transition Long-term shifts in overall mortality rates and patterns of disease As infectious disease reced (and life expectancy increases), they are replaced by degenerative and so called manmade diseases. Stages of the Transition (box 2-4) Pestilence and famine Women were more custom to eat less, after men and even after children. Women were more resistance in time of great famine. Receding pandemics A range of factors lead to a lowering rate of pandemics Quarantine measures and sanitation Degenerative and human-made diseases
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