IDSB04 Textbook notes for the entire year

141 Pages

International Development Studies
Course Code
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

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IDSB04International Health Chapter 1social context greatly affects who becomes ill disabled or dies prematurely there is an emerging concensus that addressing the social determinants of health is essential to ensuring the highest attainable state of health and well beingthese included adequate housing access to clean water sanitation nutrition education social policies and protections safe working conditions and living wages thinternational health is closely connected to the field of public health a concept coined in the 19 century to distinguish government efforts for the preservation and protection of health from private actions the preeminence of public health as a social good is being increasingly displaced by profit driven agendas thsocial medicine developed in the 19 century as a form of integrating political action and health departments in 1989 the Canadian Institute for Advances Research CIAR introduced the conept of population health proposing that indiv determinants of health do not act in isolation but instead interact in a complex fashion in Brazil and Latin America collective Health was deve in the 1970s and accelerated in the 1990s to emphasize the role and agency of ordinary ppl and social move in shaping health outcomesit challenges the exclusive role of and reliance on the public sector esp in context where gov are repressive unrepresentative or unresponsive to the collective needs of the pop International Health ththe term international health first came into use in the early 20 century after sovereign countries began to recognize the value of intergovernmental cooperation and established permanent bodies to address health issues that crossed national borders it reflected the interests of imperial powers to protect international commerce and fend off epidemics of diseases that might cause social unrest or reduce worker productivitythus early priority of international health organizations was disease surveillance standardization and sanitary treaties calling for mandatory reciprocal notification of and measures to combat particular diseasesIdeal newly acquired independence Global Health international health has been reconceptualised as global health defined asHealth problems issues and concerns that transcend national boundaries may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries and are best addressed by cooperatice actions and solutions it is portrayed as referring to the health needs of ppl across the world irrespective of borders thus depoliticizing the field global health aims to address health prob of both rich countries and poor countries and refers to health and disease patterns in terms of the interaction of global national and local forces processes and conditions in political economic social and epidemiologic domains the term has also been used to tailor the worlds health agenda to meet hegemonic US national interests and undercut bona fide internationalist efforts the idea of global health is tied to arguments around globalizationhealth dimensions of globalization are typically linked to the opening of new disease reservoirs global travel migration ineffective border control wars refugeesbioterrorism etc the central players in global health governance are international agreements and protocols international agencies and nongovernmental agencies NGOs human rights issues and international trade and deve of pharmaceuticals What then Is International Health international health is built upon the health related agreements to which most countries are signatories and is characterized by the activities that are carried out by international bilateral multilateral regional and transnational health organizationsthese agencies regard international health IH as a global public good upon which all ppl depend on another level IH deals with the worldwide dimensions of the new appearance ongoing spread and recrudescence of diseases together with their causes and consequences another facet of IH deals with organizing a humanitarian response to disasters and emergencies IH has moved up on the foreign policy agenda bc of bioterrorist threats and the protection of the contemporary world economic orderIH efforst then are concerned with disease outbreaks that could interrupt commerce manufacturing tourism etc IH has also become a big business in terms of private markets for health insurance and pharmaceutical sales etc publicprivate partnerships are good in terms f funding the field but detrimental in that public matter and resources are going to private interests the world bank operate under the assumption that health is a func of health care sys IH is also often understood in terms of diffusion of ideas practices technologies principally from developed to developing countriesoften only offer partial funding thus requiring local gov to contribute considerable financial human and physical resources to international health endeavours the social justice perspective on international health sees cooperation around health issues as a collective concern of ppl on the ground and their representative organizations movements and elected officialswhat makes health international resides in the shared prob and aspirations of ordinary ppls and efforts supported by like minded move in other settingsthe key to understanding the challenges of IH is the distribution of power and resourcesPolitical Economy Viewpoint a political economy perspectiveviews health notnational and international levelsChapter 2 The Historical Origins of Modern International HealthPlague and the Beginnings of Health Regulation European healing in medieval times involved a combo of local wisdom and a budding hierarchy of town based practitioners as travel and commerce increased the congested towns of late medieval Europe had far lower standards of water supply sanitation and hygiene than ancient civilizations and thus excellent candidate for outbreaks the first pandemic aka the Plague of Justinian struck in 542 CE and decimated pop from Asia to Ireland ththe second was the Black Death in the 14 Centurythe most destructive epidemic in the history of mankindstarting from wild rodents in Central Asia the plague reached the Black Sea in 1346 and by 1348 had spread to the British isles and to China Russia and Indiaeurope alone lost more than 25 million ppl 13 of the pop perishedhaving know knowledge of the origins of disease ppl ascribed it to meterological cosmologicaland divine causes although its cause was unkown the black death led to the earliest attempts at international disease controlin the belief that the plague was intro by ships Venice adopted a 40 day detention period for entering vessels after which disease was believe to be remit quarantine but was minimally effective cordon sanitaire a protective belt barring entry of ppl or goods to cities or entire regions was used in later centuries Venice established the first lazaretto in 1403 a quarantine station sanitary efforts were adopted and implemented by municipal authorities one at a time because there
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