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Lecture 8

LINA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Inflection, Adverb, Preposition And Postposition

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Chandan Narayan

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LINA01 Lecture 8 Tuesday, July 10, 12
Defining systactic categories:
o Meaning:
Not all meanings are well-define (eg. assassination)
Nouns (N):
o Inflection: pluralized
Adjectives (A):
o Inflections: -er, -est
o Preceded by degree words
Preposition (P):
o Followed by a noun phrase
o On the bus the bus is the noun phrase
Adverb (adv):
o Preceded by degree words
Determiners (Det):
o Specifies a function
The book vs a book
The book specifies a specific book, but a book can mean any book. (but a is a determiner as
well, sooo kinda contradicts the meaning, no?)
o Can’t be preceded by degree words
Auxiliaries (Aux):
o Modal aux
Indicate meaning
o Non-modal aux:
Indicate types (dafaq?)
John has arrived: has is an aux modifying the verb (arrived)
Conjuctions (con):
o Join together two words or phrases
Constituent structure:
o The child found the puppy:
The following sub-groups make sense:
The child
Found the puppy
The puppy
Found the puppy
These groups known as constituents
Substitution test:
o Being able to replace with pro-forms indicates it’s a constitutents
Movement test:
Phrasal categories:
Tree diagram of a sentence:
o Refer to paper!
Internal structure of a phrase
o Adjunct(s) next week
Examples of complements:
o Complement provides info about the head.
LINA01 Lecture 8 Tuesday, July 10, 12
o They found. (ungrammatical because the verb requires a compliement (eg. the puppy)
o Only some verbs don’t require compliments (eg. sleep)
o Makes meaning of head more precise
o Determiners (for nouns), adverbs (for verbs), degree words(for adj or preposition)
Three-level :
o Chompsky proposed it.
o Phrase bar syntactic category
o Specifier comes off of phrase
Sentences as an IP:
o All sentences are inflectional phrases
o I ( determines whether it’s past or non-past present/future (-past);; can’t distinguish between
present and past though
Nodes describe end points of a tree
King of England leads to x bar level.