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Lecture 3

LINB06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Determiner, Ditransitive Verb


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINB06H3
Professor
Juvenal Ndayiragije
Lecture
3

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LINB06 – Lecture 3 – X-Bar Theory
Eliminating Phrase Structure Rules
oPhase Structure Rules
oNP D (AP) N …
oVP (Adv) V NP …
oPP (Adv) P NP/PP
oAP (Adv) A PP
oAdvP (Adv) Adv …
oTP NP (aux) VP
oWhy?
oToo many of them
oToo redundant
oUnconstrained
oGenerate unconstrained syntactic trees: binary branching structures in some
case, multiple branching ones elsewhere, as shown in (2b)
oGoal – build a simple, highly constrained, generalized binary branching
structure by paying attention to the distinction between complements and
adjuncts
Complement vs. Adjunct
oE.g.
o3 Syntactic tests:
oAdjacency: In English, the complement is always adjacent to verb
and the adjunct isn’t
oDid-so (did-too) replacement: the latter targets the verb and its
complement, not the verb alone.
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oCan appear before an adjunct but not before a complement
o
Passivization
oCan represent this close relationship between the verb and
its complement as shown in (9a & 9b)
Complement vs. Adjunct in NP, AP, and PP
oAdjacency
oOne-replacement (do-so test): must include the complement, but not the
adjunct
oIteration: A noun can only take one complement. Adjuncts aren’t subject
to this restriction
oSyntactic representation of PP complement of N
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